The Rathke pouch , named after the anatomist Martin Rathke (1793-1860), is a protuberance of the roof of the pharynx in the fetus , from which the anterior pituitary lobes (adenohypophysis) develop during organogenesis . This is therefore not an endogenous tissue of the brain, but like the CNS it is of ectodermal origin.
This bulge of the oral cavity is pinched off in the further development and thus loses the connection to the oral cavity. The cavity of this bay forms the so-called pituitary vesicle . In some mammals (e.g. predators , ruminants ), this cavity remains as the pituitary cavity ( Cavum hypophysis ) in the adult animal.
In humans and horses , this cavity usually recedes completely. However, it is rare to find cysts derived from it between the pars distalis and pars intermedia of the pituitary gland, which are accordingly referred to as Rathke cysts . These fluid-filled cavities are surrounded by an epithelium and usually do not cause clinical symptoms. The craniopharyngioma is a benign tumor originating from the Rathke's pocket . The pharyngeal roof pituitary glands can arise from the epithelial remnants of the stalk of the Rathke pouch, which are rarely the starting point for tumors, so-called craniopharyngiomas.
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