|Trains||1. e2 – e4 e7 – e5
2. Ng1 – f3 Ng8 – f6
|ECO key||C42 + C43|
|Named after||Nationality of AD Petrow and CF Jänisch|
The Russian Defense (sometimes called the Petrov Defense) is an opening of the game of chess ; it is one of the open games .
The Russian Defense begins with the moves:
- 1. e2 – e4 e7 – e5
- 2. Ng1-f3 Ng8-f6
After 3. Nb1 – c3 she can switch to the four-knight game via the three- knight game . After 3. Bf1 – c4 there are variants of the bishop game and - if Black draws 3.… Nc6 - the double knight game afterwards .
The Russian Defense was named after the two Russian chess masters Petrow (1794–1867) and Jänisch (1813–1872). They were the first to conduct a detailed investigation of this opening.
The Russian defense has always been considered solid, but forces the blacks to be very precise in many lines. However, due to its popularity among the current world elite, it is already well analyzed and belongs, for example, to the standard repertoire of Vladimir Kramnik , Michael Adams , Viswanathan Anand and was - in his active time - one of the main weapons of long-time world chess champion Anatoli Karpov .
- The obvious 3. Nf3xe5 ( ECO code C42) is the classic system of the Russian defense. The intermediate move 3.… d7 – d6 (the rare 3rd… Nb8 – c6 is called the Stafford gambit ) after 4. Ne5 – f3 Nf6xe4 often leads to 5. d2 – d4 d6 – d5 6. Bf1 – d3 Bf8– e7 (Black avoids a potential pegging of his knight on e4. Depending on the situation, the bishop can later use the squares f6 or h4. Alternatively, although it is riskier because 6… Bf8 – d6 is playable.) 7. 0–0 Nb8 -C6. 8. c2 – c4 Nc6 – b4 9. Bd3 – e2 0–0 10. a2 – a3 or 8. Rf1 – e1 Bc8 – g4 9. c2 – c4 now undermines the knight on e4.
From 2000 onwards, 5. Nb1 – c3 became established. This variant has the advantage that after 5.… Ne4xc3 6. d2xc3 White gets free piece play for the double pawn and can quickly occupy the central lines with his heavy pieces . White should place his knight on d4, but first play Bf4, because Black can then no longer drive away the aggressive knight after Qd2 and 0–0–0 with the c-pawn, but must first let his knight move to e6. White inhibits the black pawn complex c7 / d6. 6.… Bf8 – e7 7. Bc1 – f4 0–0 8. Qd1 – d2 Nb8 – d7 9. 0–0–0 Nd7 – c5 10. Nf3 – d4 describes this. 7. Bc1 – e3 0–0 8. Qd1 – d2 Nb8 – d7 9. 0–0–0 Nd7 – e5 10. h2 – h4 based on the white pawn rush on the kingside .
- The gambit introduced by John Cochrane and further developed by David Bronstein and Alvis Vītoliņš is original, albeit double-edged. 3. Nf3xe5 d7 – d6 4. Ne5xf7 Ke8xf7 5. d2 – d4
For the loss of material ( knight against two pawns ), White gains the initiative in the center and an attack prospect due to Black's poor king position.
- The 3rd d2 – d4 ( ECO code C43) introduced by Wilhelm Steinitz has the answers 3.… Nf6xe4 4. Bf1 – d3 d7 – d5 5. Nf3xe5 Bf8 – d6 6. 0–0 0–0 and 3.… e5xd4 4. e4 – e5 Nf6 – e4 5. Qd1xd4 d7 – d5 6. e5xd6 Ne4xd6.
- 3. Bf1 – c4 Nf6xe4 4. Nb1 – c3 is the Boden-Kieseritzky gambit named after Lionel Kieseritzky and Samuel Boden . 4.… Ne4xc3 5. d2xc3 f7 – f6 adopts the Boden Kieseritzky gambit. Further 6. Nf3 – h4 g7 – g6 7. f2 – f4 Qd8 – e7 8. f4 – f5 De7 – g7 9. Qd1 – g4 Ke8 – d8 does not get through. But 4.… Nc6 is easier! with transition to the Italian four-knight game . Because with the subsequent acceptance of the Boden-Kieseritzky gambit after 5. 0–0 Ne4xc3 6. d2xc3 the black pawn e5 is now covered and therefore the defense of Ng5 with 6.… Bf8 – e7 is possible.
This typical opening trap leads to an early game loss:
- 3. Nf3xe5 Nf6xe4 ?!
- 4. Qd1 – e2 Ne4 – f6 ??
because after 5. Ne5 – c6 + Black must give up his queen. The correct move is 4.… Qd8 – e7. After 5. Qe2xe4 d7 – d6 6. d2 – d4 dxe5 Black will win back the knight at the expense of a pawn. This variant - the so-called Damiano - Gambit - is considered risky, but certainly also used by some strong players. The experts at this opening include the Austrian International Master Friedrich Karl Volkmann and Vladimir Ilyich Afromejew .
- Artur Yusupov : The Russian Defense. Successful opening theory for practice. Edition Olms, Zurich 1998, ISBN 3-283-00273-8 .
- Lasha Janjgava: The Petroff defense. Gambit, London 2004, ISBN 1-901983-46-3 .
- Vasilios Kotronias , Andreas Tzermiadianos : Beating the Petroff. Batsford, London 2004, ISBN 0-7134-8919-7 .
- Alexander Raetsky, Maxim Chetverik: Petroff defense. Gloucester, London 2005, ISBN 1-85744-378-0 .
- ↑ Or Cohen: Russian for Beginners in: Jeroen Bosch (Ed.): Schach ohne Schachklappen , Volume 10. New in Chess, Alkmaar 2009. P. 123 ff.