Salutatio (certificate)

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The salutatio , also a greeting and service, is the last formula in the protocol of the certificate form. It occurs only in connection with an inscriptio (address) and is in the tradition of the rhetorical doctrine of letters. This is why it has mostly been dealt with extensively in the handbooks of the Ars dictandi since Alberich von Montecassino and Adalbertus Samaritanus .

Salutation from a document by Alexander IV . from 1256

If the addressee is mentioned first for protocol reasons, the initulatio stands between the inscriptio and salutatio. A verb is missing in the salutation, as the Bolognese master and rhetorician Guido Faba noted in his Doctrina privilegiorum , referring to the use in the greetings of letters. Also Boncompagno da Signa points to this fact.

The Salutatio is missing in the diplomas of the Reich Chancellery and has been replaced by the Promulgatio , while it appears regularly in all documents formally related to the letters. In mandates and simple forms of privilege, gratiam is associated with other terms of sovereign benevolence.

In the papal litterae and breves it says salutem et apostolicam benedictionem (greeting and apostolic blessing). In the solemn privileges there is perpetuum , in the bulls in the true sense ad perpetuam rei memoriam following a generally formulated address. In the breven “ad perpetuam rei memoriam” the inscriptio is missing. The forms compiled and used by the scriptors of the Papal Chancellery also contain instructions and rules for the external equipment and the design of the protocol. Different versions of the Salutatio are intended for writing to the excommunicated ( spiritum consilii sanioris "the spirit of more reasonable reflection") as well as to Jews, Saracens and pagans ( viam veritatis agnoscere et timere "recognize and keep the path of truth").


  • Joachim Spiegel: Salutatio. In: Lexicon of the Middle Ages . Volume VII, Col. 1320-1321
  • Heinrich Fichtenau : Addresses of documents. In: Roman historical communications. Volume 18, 1976, pp. 15-29
  • Carol Dana Lanham: Salutatio Formulas in Latin Letters to 1200: Syntax, Style, an Theory. Munich 1975 (= Munich contributions to Medieval Studies and Renaissance Research, Volume 22) ISBN 3-920128-23-8

Individual evidence

  1. Peter herd : audientia litterarum contradictarum. Volume I, Tübingen 1970, p. 197 f.

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