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system series step ≈ age ( mya )
higher higher higher younger
chalk Upper Chalk Maastrichtium 66

Campanium 72

Santonium 83.6

Coniacium 86.3

Turonium 89.7

Cenomanium 93.9

Lower Cretaceous Albium 100.5

Aptium 112.9

Barremium 126.3

Skin rivium 130.7

Valanginium 133.9

Berriasium 139.3

deeper deeper deeper older

The Santonium (also Santon ) is a chronostratigraphic level of the Upper Cretaceous . In absolute numbers ( geochronologically ) it covers the period from about 86.3 to about 83.6 million years. It follows the Coniacium and is replaced by the Campanium .

Naming and history

The series of rocks that typify this stage are located in the historic Saintonge landscape near the French city of Saintes . The Latin name "Santonum" for this landscape gave the stage its name. Henri Coquand proposed the name and level in 1857.

Definition and GSSP

The beginning of the stage is defined by the first appearance of the Inoceramen species Platyceramus undulatoplicatus . The stage ends with the extinction of the sea ​​lily species Marsupites testudinarius . The profile “Cantera de Margas” near Olazagutia (Northern Spain) was determined as the GSSP (global type locality and type profile) for the Santonium .


The santonium can be divided into the lower, middle and upper levels.

In the Tethys area , the santonium has only one ammonite biozone:

A finer subdivision can be achieved with inoceramen , foraminifera and nannoplankton .


  • Felix Gradstein, Jim Ogg, Jim & Alan Smith: A geologic timescale. Cambridge University Press 2004, ISBN 0-521-78673-8
  • Hans Murawski & Wilhelm Meyer: Geological dictionary . 10., rework. u. exp. Ed., 278 pages, Enke Verlag, Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-432-84100-0 .

Individual evidence

  1. MA Lamolda, CRC Pau, D. Peryt, JM Pons: The Global Boundary Stratotype and Section Point (GSSP) for the base of the Santonian Stage, "Cantera de Marga" Olazagutia, northern Spain. Episodes, 37 (1): 2–13, 2014 PDF

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