Shade plant

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As shade plants (Skiadophyten) are plants called that only a subset of the usual amount of light need to their maximum photosynthesis to operate and therefore can grow in shady locations. The opposite are sun plants (heliophytes), whose need is higher and which show less growth in the shade or do not thrive at all.

Depending on the photosynthetic rate ( ordinate ) of the available light intensity ( abscissa ) when the sun or shade plants. The light saturation point is reached much faster by shade plants, their light compensation point is also lower. Net photosynthesis takes place in the positive area of ​​the ordinate , while net breathing occurs in the negative area .

Shade plants have thin, flat and often comparatively large leaves with plenty of chlorophyll, which maximizes the light yield.

A distinction is made between obligatory shade plants, which only thrive in the shade, and optional shade plants, which also grow in full sunlight, but here develop a sun shape.

For example, the European yew already reaches its net primary production at 300 lux and the silver fir at 600 lux.

Shade tolerant species are often also moisture-loving and often have large, thin leaves (hygromorphic) with loose, chlorophyll-rich tissue.

Many examples of shade plants can be found in tropical rainforests in the shrub layer and in the herb layer in the area of ferns and mosses .

Examples of our latitudes are wood sorrel and balsam , they get by with only about one percent of sunlight.

See also: Pointer values ​​according to Ellenberg , K strategy

The locations are differentiated according to the amount of light:

  • Negative ; usually refers to a location that is bright and not shielded from above - for example by a large treetop - but not directly illuminated by the sun. However, it benefits from an intense incidence of scattered light. However, one also speaks of a shady location if it is only protected from direct sun at noon.
  • Light shade , light shade; when shadows and sunspots alternate on a small scale. Such locations are often found under very translucent tree tops, for example. A light-shaded location can also be exposed to full sun in the morning or evening - in contrast to the partially shaded location, however, it is not in full shade at any time of the day.
  • Partial shade ; are locations that are temporarily in full shade - either in the morning and at noon, only during lunchtime or from noon to evening. They do not get more than four to six hours of sun a day and are usually not exposed to the midday sun.
  • Shady ; are locations under large shrubs or trees also close to higher walls, buildings, with predominantly shade or partial shade.

Individual evidence

  1. Knodel, Hans .: Linder Biologie: Textbook for the upper level . 18., completely reworked. Metzler, Stuttgart 1977, ISBN 3-476-20051-5 , pp. 90 .
  2. ^ Folkert Siemens, Katharina Wiegert: Plants for partially shaded and shady places. at my beautiful garden . accessed on August 20, 2017.
  3. Garden knowledge: an absurd location. at my beautiful garden. accessed on August 20, 2017.