Battle of Jaquijahuana
|date||April 9, 1548|
|output||Decisive victory for the viceroyalty|
|consequences||Collapse of the rebellion|
|Parties to the conflict|
Cajamarca • Vilcaconga • Cusco I • Maraycalla • Chimborazo • Cusco II • Ollantaytambo
Wars : Abancay • Las Salinas • Chupas • Añaquito • Huarina • Jaquijahuana
The battle of Jaquijahuana took place on April 9, 1548 in the plain of Jaquijahuana (also Xaquixaguana or Sacsahuana ), 25 km from Cusco . The troops of the Spanish special envoy Pedro de la Gasca defeated the rebellious Spanish conquistadors around Gonzalo Pizarro because large parts of Pizarro's army overflowed to him. Pizarro and his military leader Francisco de Carvajal were captured and executed the following day. This largely ended the civil war period and the viceroyalty of Peru was able to stabilize.
After the murder of Francisco Pizarro in 1541, the administration of the conquered Inca empire was transferred from the Conquistadors to officials from Spain. Pizarro's “New Castile” governorate became part of the newly founded viceroyalty of Peru. When the first viceroy, Blasco Núñez de Vela , uncompromisingly wanted to enforce the “New Laws” to protect the Indians, the conquistadors protested, who as encomenderos had previously been assigned Indians as labor. To them the land was of value only in connection with the Indians. The protest culminated in a rebellion led by Francisco Pizarro's brother Gonzalo, which spread through Peru to Panama and in which the viceroy was killed.
The Spanish King Charles I then appointed the priest and lawyer Pedro de la Gasca as President of the Real Audiencia of Lima with the powers of a viceroy and sent him - without military support - to South America. He managed to win the loyalty of the Spaniards bit by bit, first in Panama and then in Lima. After Pizarro had turned down an offer of amnesty , the battle of Huarina in 1547 led to the first military conflict, which Pizarro was able to win. As a result, La Gasca regrouped his forces, and more and more Spaniards switched to the king's side.
La Gasca moved from Jauja to Pizarro, who resided in Cusco. After a difficult crossing of the Apurímac Gorge , he reached the plateau largely unmolested. Gonzalo Pizarro's army was outnumbered, but better positioned: They camped in a protected valley and had nearby Cusco as a supply base. Still, La Gasca delayed the battle in the hopes that Pizarro's forces would switch fronts. In fact, two officers left the royal camp that night, and when the armies faced each other the next morning, Pizarro's ranks broke up. First of all, the oidor Diego Vázquez de Cepeda switched to the king's side, followed closely by Martín de Sicilia, who pierced his horse and would have killed Cepeda had it not been for the aid of La Gasca's people. He was followed by the respected Sebastián Garcilaso de la Vega and other captains with their men. Pizarro's army disintegrated and there was little fighting.
Gonzalo Pizarro surrendered and was sentenced to death by beheading. The sentence was carried out the following day. His master, Francisco de Carvajal, feared as a demon of the Andes because of his cruelty , was quartered after the execution.
- Siegfried Huber: Pizarro - gold, blood and visions . Walter-Verlag, Olten 1978, ISBN 3-530-38581-6 , p. 378 ff .
Coordinates: 13 ° 28 ′ 6 ″ S , 72 ° 12 ′ 24 ″ W.