Segregation (genetics)

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In genetics, according to Mendel's 2nd rule of inheritance (splitting rule), segregation (from Latin segregare , “remove”, “separate”) is the splitting of hereditary traits of maternal and paternal origin. This is usually done through a random distribution of homologous chromosomes during meiosis . But there are also cases in which the segregation does not follow chance and therefore Mendel's 2nd rule is violated ( meiotic drive , non-random segregation of chromosomes ). The segregation leads to the fact that during sexual reproduction the gametes (sex cells ) of a living being are genetically equipped differently, and consequently also the offspring.

In addition to this original use of the word, which refers to hereditary dispositions that were initially not intended to be material, the separation of homologous chromosomes, i.e. the material carriers, is also referred to as segregation in meiosis.

Segregation also refers to the division of plasmids when prokarytic cells divide .

Under somatic segregation an irregular distribution of chromosomes is disturbed at mitosis understood.

Individual evidence

  1. Lexicon of Biology : Segregation . Spectrum Academic Publishing House, Heidelberg 1999.
  2. For example in Bernard John: Meiosis . Cambridge University Press 1990, pp. 221ff.
  3. ^ Günter Kahl: The Dictionary of Gene Technology. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim 2004. ISBN 978-3-527-30765-4