Simultaneum mixtum

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The Simultaneum mixtum was a service that was celebrated simultaneously by Catholics and Protestants between 1650 and 1850 in Goldenstedt ( Vechta district ). While in other simultaneous churches Protestants and Catholics gathered spatially or temporally separately for their services, the Goldenstedt people celebrated their services together, although the Catholics and Protestants each had their own liturgy. This form of worship, which was in force for over 200 years, is historically unique.


The community of Goldenstedt belonged to two domains from 1650 to 1817, the Catholic Vechta-Münster and the Protestant Diepholz - Lüneburg . The Simultaneum mixtum persisted beyond the end of the dual power and did not end until 1850 with the construction of a Protestant church.

Order of worship of the Simultaneum mixtum

During the aforementioned period, Catholics and Protestants owned the local church together. While the Catholic community provided the priest, the sexton belonged to the Evangelical Church. The order of worship described in a church newspaper from 1854 was as follows:

The entrance of the Catholic priest was followed by the Kyrie eleison of the Protestant worshipers. The priest then intoned the Gloria , to which the Protestants responded with the song Only God in the Heights be honor . The gospel and Latin creed sung by the Catholic priest was followed by the Lutheran confession song We all believe in one God . At the sacrifice of the Mass, the Protestant worshipers remained “inactive”, but then sang a chorale that referred to Sunday or the corresponding festival time. The Protestants also sang the song after the sermon given by the Catholic clergyman.


  • Bernhard Brockmann: The worldwide unique Simultaneum mixtum in Goldenstedt. Evangelical and Catholic together from 1650 to 1850 , Vechta-Langförden 2007, ISBN 978-3-86685-099-6
  • Tim Unger: One service - two denominations. The biconfessionality of the parish Goldenstedt as the result of a failed territorialization . In: Yearbook of the Society for Lower Saxony Church History 101, 2003, pp. 101–116.
  • Elisabeth Reinke: Joint Lutheran-Catholic worship service in Goldenstedt 1650–1850 . In: Yearbook for the Oldenburger Münsterland 1976 . Vechta 1975, pp. 170-175.
  • The writer Bernd Kessens was inspired by the historical events of the Simultaneum mixtum for his novel ... and a gold watch on his feet .

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Realencyklopadie for Protestant Theology and Church , 3rd ed., Vol. 18, p. 377