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Tatpurusha (तत्पुरुष tatpuruṣa ) is a term from Sanskrit grammar that denotes a certain type of compound word . In linguistic terminology, a tatpurusha is an endocentric determinative compound . Here, the final link is determined in more detail by the front link. In a narrower sense, Tatpurushas only include those compounds in which there is a case relationship between the two components. The foreground can represent any of the six oblique cases of Sanskrit. If the fore and hindquarters are in the same case, one speaks of a Karmadharaya compound.

The term “Tatpurusha” is also an example of this type of compound word and means “his man”. Further examples:

  • Accusative : स्वर्गगत svarga-gata : literally "gone to heaven" = "gone to heaven"
  • Instrumental : देवदत्त deva-datta : "given by God" = "given by a god"
  • Dative : कर्णसुख karṇa-sukha : literally "pleasant to the ear" = "pleasant to the ear"
  • Ablative : स्वर्गपतित svarga-patita : literally "fallen from heaven" = "fallen from heaven"
  • Genitive : राजपुत्र rāja-putra : "king's son" = "son of the king"
  • Locative : वनाश्रम van-āśrama : "forest hermitage" = "hermitage in the forest"

As can be seen from the examples, Tatpurushas in German can often, if not always, also be represented by a compound, since German also knows determinative compounds. However, these are not used to the same extent as in Sanskrit.

A special case of the Tatpurusha compound is the Upapada-Tatpurusha (उपपदतत्पुरुष upapada-tatpuruṣa ), in which the hind limb consists of a verbal root and has the meaning of a participle (e.g. सर्वज्ञ sarva-jña : "all-knowing" = "knowing everything") ). This construction is also basically possible in German, as the expressions omniscient, light-bringing (constructed with an accusative object), god-given, man-made, man-made, man-made (constructed with instrumental) show, but only productive to a certain extent. Often it is loan translations from Latin (cf. lucifer : "bringing the light, light-bringer") and ancient Greek (cf. αἰγίοχος aigíochos " holding the Aigis "), in which these compounds can still be considered a productive class of words .

Likewise, the German compound words for “-bar” (< Indo-European * bher- “wear”) come from the same type of education as the Indian, Greek and Latin examples and have only experienced an additional change in meaning: “loadable” <“that / a burden [or. a load] 'carrying' ”, that is,“ allowing ”this (s). Formations such as “wolverine”, on the other hand, do not count as tatpurusha (endocentric compound), but as bahuvrihi , since it does not mean “eaten many [things]” itself, but rather a third, outside of both combined ideas, in this case a person who eats a lot (exocentric compound word).

In rare cases (mostly with proper names or fixed expressions) the front link of a Tatpurusha compound is not in the root form, as usual, but in an inflected case form (e.g. युधिष्ठिर yudhi-ṣṭhira "steadfast in battle").

See also


  • Adolf Friedrich Stenzler : Elementary book of the Sanskrit language. 19th, through u. verb. Berlin, New York: De Gruyter, 2003.