Topos enable rock or ice climbers to estimate their degree of difficulty , length and course as well as the necessary safety equipment before starting the route . In topos, for example, standing places , possibilities for intermediate securing , overhangs , chimneys , cross passages , rock cracks , existing hooks , key points , abseiling routes etc. are drawn in .
In contrast to the topos with the symbols shown below, which are mainly used in alpine terrain, a simplified topoculture has formed in sports climbing gardens. Often only digital photos of the rock or different sections of the rock (sectors) are common. It shows the course of the routes with a list of levels of difficulty, the length of the route, or special features of the route or location.
|Intersection||Crack||Streak of water||ramp|
|Edge||tape||Heel / shoulder||Overhang|
|cornice||top, roof||Niche / cave||Snow / firn|
|Boulders / rubble||grass||tree||Mountain pine|
|Fixed wire rope||Stand||Bivouac place||Abseiling point|
|Pendulum traverse||visible route||hidden route||variant|
- Examples of icons used in Topos. (jpg) UIAA , accessed on April 16, 2008 (German / English). Toposymbols of theUIAA
- Topo Gindlkante. (htm) OEAV , accessed April 16, 2008 . Example of a topos
- http://tourismus.schwarzenberg.at/sites/default/files/toposchwarzenberg2006_0.pdf Example of a simple topos of a sports climbing garden
- UIAA Guidebook Standards. UIAA , accessed July 17, 2010 .