A triennium is a period of three years. In particular, the Triennium academicum describes a study period of three academic years (six semesters).
History and meaning
In the course of modern times , the triennium academicum has become a mandatory minimum period of study and a prerequisite for taking state examinations. This first happened in Prussia . The triennium was expressly ordered by the royal cabinet order of April 7, 1804, initially only relating to the University of Halle : “I approve the duration of the university study for three years.” The same provision was later extended to all Prussian state universities. In an order of March 19, 1819 to the Royal Consistories and Provincial School Colleges it says: “By an order from Sr. Maj. April 7th, 1804 the duration of the university study is set at 3 years, the exact observation of this period is made the duty of all state examination authorities to stipulate that no one is admitted to the first state examination who does not complete either the triennium academicum or the Remission of part of the same has been obtained from the chief of the department with which he wishes to be examined; Finally, in order to obtain this decree, a successful examination at the faculty to which the student belongs and a certificate received about it were required as an essential condition. "In the course of the 19th century there were repeated discussions about whether a mandatory four-year study period ( Quadriennium ) is not more appropriate than in the case of medical studies, but the triennium remained the minimum requirement for doctorates in the humanities, the higher teaching post, clergy and lawyers.
State Church Law
Since the Kulturkampf , the state-required obligation to spend a triennium of theology studies at a state university has been incorporated into German state church law through numerous state church treaties with regional Protestant churches such as the Loccum Treaty and concordats with the Holy See . In the scope of the Prussian Concordat, for example, certain diocesan offices may not be awarded to graduates of religious colleges. The requirement to study at a state university was the counterpart to the state guarantee of existence of the theological faculties. However , it is no longer included in the newer 3rd generation of state church treaties , starting with the Wittenberg Treaty . The Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD) is of the opinion today that the contractual obligation towards the state on certain entry requirements for the pastoral office is not compatible with the authority of the church.
- L. Wiese (ed.): Ordinances and laws for the higher schools in Prussia. Volume 2: The teaching post and the teachers Berlin: Wiegand and Grieben 1868, p. 2
- See example for the law degree Levin Goldschmidt : The three-year study of law and political science. Berlin: G. Reimer 1878 ( digitized version ) and the detailed review with further references in Khe : Goldschmidt, Gierke, Gneist, Studium undprüfung , in: Contributions to Explanation of German Law 22 (1878), pp. 431–442
- Manfred Baldus : Kirchliche Hochschulen , in: Handbuch des Wissenschaftsrechts , Heidelberg: Springer 2013 ISBN 9783642966590 , p. 1110
- Weber: The Wittenberg Treaty - A Loccum for the New Federal States? In: NVwZ 1 1994, pp. 759, 765.
- Claudio Fuchs: The state church law of the new federal states. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck 1999 ISBN 978-3-16-147214-5 (= Jus ecclesiasticum 61), zugl .: Tübingen, Univ., Diss., 1995, p. 126