to fail

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Failure is failure to meet targets and requirements .


In manufacturing technology in particular, the failure of machines , devices , assemblies and individual parts is usually intentionally caused by constant stress under difficult conditions in order to determine the expected service life of a product . An unexpectedly early failure is a material defect and requires improvement; an unexpectedly late failure, on the other hand, usually leads to savings in materials , construction and production . - No savings are made if you opt for preventive maintenance .

Material failure can also occur unintentionally - i.e. outside of a planned material test .


According to the English mathematician and philosopher John G. Bennett , only the possibility of failure makes things "real". According to Bennett , true freedom is only conceivable in non-determined life situations (the outcome is actually open). These cases, whose special character he describes with the presence of hazard (English for endangerment, danger , moment of danger, risk , risk , chance ), enable the individual to make an actual free will decision - thus contain a real uncertainty.

In his main work, The Dramatic Universe , Bennett claims that such situations are not limited to human perception, but rather that moments of hazard are part of the fundamental condition of the universe on a physical level: Hazard is a “fundamental constant” of reality; there is no perfect state that is free from this interplay of uncertainty and will (or natural laws).

Another aspect, which is also interesting from the point of view of religious studies, arises from the fact that Bennett sees not only man and nature subject to this uncertainty, but also every possible idea of ​​a creator. His postulate that God, too, is not exempt from the “natural law” of hazard or uncertainty in his work, resolves the systemic contradiction between human freedom and an “omnipotence of God”. Based on the conviction that God (whatever religious beliefs) cannot be omnipotent, Bennett attaches great importance to man's co-responsibility in creation .


In June 2017, a “Museum of Failure” opened in the “Kulturhotell” in the Swedish city of Helsingborg ; it shows around 70 failed and unsuccessful inventions. Samuel West is the founder and director.

See also

Individual evidence


Web links

Wikiquote: Failure  - Quotes
Wiktionary: failure  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations