Villa Tidenheim is a place name ( Middle Latin villa = village, village mark, settlement, courtyard) in the Lorsch Codex . It appears in this spelling only once in a document, namely with reference to a gift from a certain Scerphuin in Tidenheim to the Lorsch monastery "on the 13th calendar of April in the 14th (reign) year of King Karl" - that was the 20th March 782. A church is also mentioned in this donation. The entry states that the abbot of the monastery was Gundeland at the time - a mistake, because Gundeland had already died in 778.
In the Lorsch Codex there are other similar-sounding place names (Ditincheim, Titincheim, Tintingheim, Tittingesheim) with different dates that refer to a settlement in Niddagau . Dyedenkeim and Didencheim are also mentioned in Eppstein's lists of fiefdoms . It is generally assumed that there are different ways of spelling and forming the name of a single village, as the Middle Ages did not yet have a binding spelling of place names. Today's spelling is Dietigheim .
From a linguistic point of view, however, it can be established that Tidenheim and Dietigheim were formed from the personal name Tido / Dito or a derivation thereof, to which the ending "-heim" was added. In terms of grammar, however, both forms differ; So were there two different villages after all? This is supported by the fact that the name "Dito" appears repeatedly in the Codex Eberhardi of the Fulda Monastery , e.g. B. a "Dito comes" is called, who made donations to the monastery in the 2nd half of the 8th century. "Dito" is guaranteed as a proper name and thus also its use in the "-heim" place "villa Tidenheim", although there is no reference to a connection to the "comes" in the Eberhardi Codex.
CD Vogel stated in his “Description of the Duchy of Nassau ” in 1843 that Tidenheim was near Eschborn and was destroyed by a “thunderstorm” in 875, but the name of a field still reminds us of it. The same misfortune, albeit without mentioning Tidenheim, was reported by Johann Adam Bernhard in his Antiquities Wetteravae in 1731 and even gives two sources in which this news is contained.
Friedrich Scharff offered a possible location in 1865, who stated that the Tidenheim field could not be proven, but then referred to Mayor Kuntz. From this he learned that in a certain area, the field name of which he specifies, "basalt and bricks" were found in the ground, which could indicate a small church or chapel.
Around 40 years later, Friedrich Kofler denied Vogel's information and, with regard to the field reminiscent of Tidenheim (without mentioning Scharffs' reference), referred to an Eschborn pastor whom he had interviewed and who was unknown. The field name map published in recent years by the Eschborn Historical Society for the period before 1887 also shows nothing similar, although it should be said that there are also land names with "Chaussee" and "Eisenbahn" that do not indicate a great age these field names indicate, on the other hand, do not say anything about the age of the others.
Kofler located his “Dietigheim” in the valley below today's Bad Homburg Castle , which therefore cannot be identical to Vogel's Tidenheim . He was also able to underpin his view with written sources from which it emerged that the original name of the "valley" was actually Dietigheim . Dietigheim is also referred to as “iuxta Hohenberch” in the “Eppsteinschen Lehensverzeichnis”, ie it is located near Homburg - today's Bad Homburg, which was only given the addition “Bad” at the beginning of the 20th century.
However, this said nothing about the age of the settlement in the valley. Excavations in 2002 have now shown that the settlement there arose around 1300 at the earliest. Various circumstances (for example the fact that "-heim" names were only given until the end of the 8th century, so the settlement "Dietigheim" must have existed long before 1300) indicate that it is one of the Relocations were quite frequent in the Middle Ages. However, it is not clear where the resettlers came from, as there are no direct written sources about them. In any case, they did not come from the Tidenheim near Eschborn, because, according to Vogel, that had already disappeared in 875. So it can be assumed that there was a second village - but where?
There is only a presumption that Dietigheim could have been located in the area with the field name “Hofstadt” in Gonzenheim , a suburb east of Bad Homburg. In his Guide to Homburg 1880, which was written in English, Kofler quotes an old legend according to which Gonzenheim used to be much larger and a castle belonging to the Homburg knight Brendel was located there. An interpretation that Dietigheim could have “moved” to Homburg with Brendel Castle would be possible, but it is hardly sufficient as convincing evidence.
Deviating from this, the Georgenfeld in the opposite, western direction is also assumed to be a possible location for Dietigheim . This question has not yet been clarified.
- Final report: The investigation results of the special archaeological excavation "Untergasse" in Bad Homburg vd Höhe (May 2002) as well as the scientific and medieval analyzes (2002/2003), Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, seminar for prehistory, o . J.
- Kurth, Rüdiger: Bad Homburg-Gonzenheim in prehistoric times, master's thesis at the seminar for prehistory in Marburg (Bad Homburg 2006)
- Lotz, Friedrich: History of the city of Bad Homburg vor der Höhe with the districts of Kirdorf and Gonzenheim, Volume I: Encounter with documents (Frankfurt 1964)
- Magistrate of the City of Bad Homburg (Ed.), Gonzenheim. Booklet accompanying the exhibition "Gonzenheim through the ages" on the occasion of the 1200th anniversary of the city of Bad Homburg vd Höhe, organized by the Gonzenheim club on October 9 and 10, 1982 in the Gonzenheim clubhouse (Bad Homburg 1982)
Notes and individual references
- Magistrate of the City of Bad Homburg (Ed.): 1200 Years Bad Homburg (Bad Homburg 1982), p. 7
- Krüger, Astrid: On the mention of Dietigheim (OT von Bad Homburg) in the Lorscher Codex, in: Final report (see literature ) p. 30 ff.
- Wagner, P., The Eppsteinschen Fiefdoms and Interest Register of the XIII Century (Wiesbaden / Munich 1927)
- Oral communication by Prof. Dr. EE Metzner, University of Frankfurt, 2005
- Vogel, Christian D., Description of the Duchy of Nassau (Wiesbaden 1843), 866f.
- Bernhard, JA, Johann Adam Bernhards Antiquitates Wetteraviae or Antiquities of the Wetterau, ... What else comes Erasmi Alberi and Marquardi Freheri, under the name Weyrich Wettermanns Kurtze Description of the Wetterau (Hanau 1731)
- Scharff, Friedrich, Die Strassen der Frankenfurt, in: Archiv für Frankfurts Geschichte und Kunst 11, 1865, pp. 202–254, footnote on page 225
- Kofler, Friedrich: Didigheim, in: Quarterly pages of the Historical Association for the Grand Duchy of Hesse, No. 1–4 from 1879 (Darmstadt 1880)
- cf. see section 6 of Rüdiger Kurth's master's thesis (see literature ): Historical sources on Gonzenheim's early history
- Kurth, op. Cit., Section 6.3.2: The "Hofstadt" corridor in Gonzenheim and its meaning