The zoom in the film represents a change in the focal length on the camera lens (here zoom lens ), in which the position of the camera does not change, and imitates a trip there or back, for example the change from the long shot to a close-up shot. A zoom is usually produced by changing the focal length of the zoom lens of the running camera; but it can also be implemented using trick technology.
When zooming in , the viewer appears to be moving towards an object; a zoom-out gives the impression of moving backwards.
Especially in spaghetti westerns , the technique has been used excessively, especially for economic reasons almost as tracking shots - especially rides on rails - are more expensive: they take longer to implement and require more staff. The use of the zoom as a substitute for the tracking shot has been criticized as a stylistic device because the visual / spatial impression is considered too artificial. Above all, rapid changes in the focal length always create a certain optical suction effect; In addition, the actual spatial relationships are falsified in the course of a zoom (e.g. distance between foreground and background).
In today's film production, the zoom is used much more discreetly, often only in selected, intentionally emphasized settings .
The so-called dolly zoom is an interesting effect that is made possible by the interplay between tracking and changing the focal length .
- Werner Kamp, Manfred Rüsel: From dealing with film Cornelsen, 1st edition, ISBN 3-06-102824-2 .