Alexander of Pherai

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Alexander of Pherai ( Greek Ἀλέξανδρος Aléxandros ; † 358 BC ) was a tyrant in the Thessalian city ​​of Pherai , where he lived from 369 to 358 BC. Ruled.

After the assassination of the tyrant Jason of Pherai in the summer of 370 BC. His brothers Polydoros and Polyphron took over the rule together. Polydorus was soon killed, probably by Polyphron, who then took all power. But Polyphron only ruled for about a year; he fell victim to a coup d'état by Alexander, a son of Polydorus. With this Alexander won not only the position of a tyrant of Pherai, but also the office of Tagos , a senior official and de facto leader of the Thessalian League, which his predecessors had already held. Polyphron had already exercised this office in the sense of a tyranny; he wanted to rule not only in Pherai but in all of Thessaly without restrictions. This presumption, which Alexander continued, aroused opposition in the affected cities; Oppositionists turned to King Alexander II of Macedonia for help . Alexander II then occupied the Thessalian cities of Larisa and Krannon , not to free them, but to keep them themselves. The oppressed Thessalians then turned to Thebes , who sent their general Pelopidas to Pherai, who, however, in 368 BC. Was captured by Alexander. Thebes then sent Epaminondas with a large army to Pherai to force the release of Pelopidas, which was then granted. 364 BC There was another war between Pherai and Thebes. Alexander was defeated in the battle of Kynoskephalai, but the Thebans lost their general Pelopidas in the battle. The defeat meant that Alexander had to give up his claim to rule over Thessaly and join Pherai to the Boeotian League.

358 BC He was murdered by the stepbrothers of his wife Thebe ( Tisiphonus , Lycophron II and Peitholaos) on their instigation. Thebe, a daughter of Jason of Pherai's first marriage, claimed that her husband was keen to kill her; she wanted to forestall him according to her statements. Alexander's death also marks the end of an independent role for Thessaly within the Greek world of states. In the next few years, Thessaly became increasingly dependent on its overpowering neighbor Macedonia.

Individual evidence

  1. an allusion to it in Ovid , Ibis 319f.