Anti-Catholicism denotes a hostile attitude towards the Catholic Church and, in part, towards its members.
Anti-Catholicism can be understood as a special form of anti-clericalism . Historical examples of the appearance of large anti-Catholic movements include the Kulturkampf in Germany and similar processes in other European countries such as Italy, Belgium and Switzerland, the Puritans especially after the excommunication of Elizabeth I and the Know-Nothing Party in America, whose efforts were directed against Catholic immigrants from Ireland and Germany. The Ku Klux Klan also positioned itself increasingly anti-Catholic in the beginning of the 20th century and thus gained a broad following in the early 1920s that extended far beyond the southern states .
Research sees the anti-Catholic cultural struggles in Europe at the end of the 19th century as a reaction to ultramontanism and the Vatican's negative attitude towards the Enlightenment and modernity .
Anti-Catholicism is also widespread among some evangelical currents, especially those close to the Christian Right . In Latin America this can also be seen as a counter-movement to the liberation theology that emerged in the second half of the 20th century and the Marxist guerrillas who sympathized with it. The short term in office of Efraín Ríos Montt in Guatemala , who was under the influence of American television preachers such as Jerry Falwell and Pat Robertson , was marked by religious tensions between the fundamentalist-evangelical leadership elite around Efraín Montt and the Catholic majority population. This went so far that Mario Enrique Ríos Montt , Catholic archbishop and brother of the dictator, had to go into exile in the meantime.
The book Evangelizing Africa by the Brazilian IURD missionary and mayor of Rio de Janeiro Marcelo Crivella is also marked by a rejection of Catholicism, which he describes as "demonic", among other things.
- Evan Haefeli (ed.): Against Popery: Britain, Empire, and Anti-Catholicism. University of Virginia Press, Charlottesville 2020, ISBN 978-0-8139-4491-3 .
- Claire Gheeraert-Graffeuille, Geraldine Vaughan (Ed.): Anti-Catholicism in Britain and Ireland, 1600–2000: Practices, Representations and Ideas. Springer International, Cham 2020, ISBN 978-3-030-42881-5 .
- Maura Jane Farrelly: Anti-Catholicism in America, 1620-1860. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2018, ISBN 978-1-107-16450-5 .
- Elizabeth Fenton: Religious Liberties: Anti-Catholicism and Liberal Democracy in Nineteenth-Century US Literature and Culture. Oxford University Press, New York 2011, ISBN 978-0-19-538409-3 .
- Manuel Borutta: Anti-Catholicism: Germany and Italy in the age of European cultural struggles. 2nd, revised edition. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2011, ISBN 978-3-525-36849-7 .
- Philip Jenkins: The New Anti-Catholicism: The Last Acceptable Prejudice. Oxford University Press, New York 2004, ISBN 978-0-19-517604-9 .
- Lisa Dittrich: Anti-clericalism in Europe: Publicity and Secularization in France, Spain and Germany (1848-1914) . Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2014, ISBN 978-3-6473-1023-7 , p. 14
- Manuel Borutta: Anti-Catholicism: Germany and Italy in the age of European cultural struggles . Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2011, ISBN 978-3-6473-6849-8 , p. 11
- Manuel Borutta: Anti-Catholicism: Germany and Italy in the age of European cultural struggles . Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2011, ISBN 978-3-6473-6849-8 , pp. 123, 124
- Manfred Berg : History of the USA . Walter de Gruyter, Munich 2013, ISBN 978-3-4867-3741-7 , pp. 27 , 28
- Jeffrey Marlett: Anti-Catholicism . In Peter Knight (Ed.): Conspiracy Theories in American History: An Encyclopedia . ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara (CA) 2003, ISBN 978-1-5760-7812-9 , p. 67
- Thomas Welskopp: America's great disenchantment: A cultural history of prohibition . Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn 2010, ISBN 978-3-5067-7026-4 , p. 418
- Manuel Borutta: Anti-Catholicism: Germany and Italy in the age of European cultural struggles . Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2011, ISBN 978-3-6473-6849-8 , pp. 11 , 12
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