Labor analysis and synthesis
The work analysis with subsequent work synthesis should systematically transfer the work content (the WHAT ) into the type of task fulfillment (the HOW ). It thus forms the transition from structural to process organization . In practice, this means breaking down the subtasks determined by the task analysis and task synthesis (e.g. invoice processing) into their smallest work elements (process sections ). This is what defines the work analysis . In the following work synthesis , which is part of the process organization, the work elements are summarized spatially, in terms of time and personnel into efficient work steps.
As part of the task analysis, all tasks are broken down into their smallest elements, the subtasks of the lowest order, also called elementary tasks. These elementary tasks now form the starting point for the work analysis. As part of the work analysis, similar to the task analysis, these work parts are broken down into their smallest elements, the gait elements. These gangway elements can be broken down according to the aspects of performance, object, rank, phase and purpose.
It can only be structured according to one point of view, but there can be several levels of structure. The literature assumes three to seven levels.
As an example, consider an analysis according to the performance principle , in which the point of sale of goods to the customer is the highest order work part .
This can be broken down into the following work parts of medium order : In addition to receiving customer requests and fulfilling customer requests, there are also agreeing a price and initiating payment
If one now examines one of these points for working parts of the lowest order , then the working part of fulfilling customer requirements breaks down into packing goods and handing goods over to the customer .
The aim of the work analysis is to give an overview of all work parts at every level that are contained in a defined task. With the work synthesis one tries to summarize these elements spatially, temporally and personally into efficient work steps and to distribute them to the individual task holders.
It should be noted here that the levels at which the subtasks are determined and subsequently assigned to someone can be at different levels of the task analysis. The amount also depends on the degree of division of labor in the organization. If the transition level is very high, the degree of division of labor tends towards zero. This is the case, for example, with an OPES. On the other hand, there is a high degree of division of labor when the task analysis leads to the work synthesis at a low level.
When creating the work synthesis, several process sections are first combined into one work step and then several work steps are defined for a step task. This is followed by a personal, temporal and local synthesis. It is important to keep in mind that the personal, temporal and local synthesis are only different perspectives of a single work synthesis.
In this context, the qualitative and quantitative material resources are also assessed. For these, the fulfillment of the work is not endangered at any time.
After the gang tasks of a position have been fixed, the person is assigned a task by combining matching gang tasks from the point of view of the optimal utilization of people and material resources. This step is known as the personal work synthesis.
In the temporal synthesis, the performance of the individual workers is timed so that the best possible lead time is achieved for the work items . Closely related to this task is the after the reduction of the organizationally planned stocks .
In addition to the two aspects already discussed, the work synthesis can be carried out with emphasis on the spatial aspect. The focus is on the design and arrangement of the workplaces in the work process and their equipment. The spatial arrangement should primarily take into account the internal transport routes.
The synthesis takes place under the two main aspects of coordination and motivation . The quality of coordination in an organization is the achievement of economic indicators, new German and Key Performance Indicators measured named. They are defined depending on the organizational goals set.
In addition to an efficient coordination solution, the economic success of an organization is essentially dependent on the extent to which the work is organized in a humane manner. In addition to ergonomics , motivation is an umbrella term used to assess the extent to which this has been achieved. So the psychological goals are about adapting working conditions to people.
Since the two goals are partly in contradiction to one another, an integrated consideration would be required to find an optimal solution. Research and practice are still a long way from this, however, so that, for example, ergonomics , since the human relations movement , for example, appear like separate stakeholders . In the meantime, ensuring the psychological integrity of employees has been included in the risk analysis by the legislator .
Furthermore, the result becomes all the more subjective, the greater the number of analysis stages, since there is no binding procedure for creating work analyzes and syntheses.
The concept is particularly relevant for the clear recording and description of complex tasks.