Training remuneration (Germany)

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Training remuneration is the appropriate remuneration to be granted to the trainees by the trainees for the agreed regular daily training time ( § 17 BBiG ).


With the emergence of guilds in the 11th to 14th centuries, apprenticeship as a form of professional training emerged in Germany . However, the apprentice did not receive any training allowance, but instead provided room and board. In return, the apprentice's family was obliged to pay the master an apprenticeship fee. This handicraft tradition was continued regardless of the dissolution of the guilds in Germany in 1811 . It was only after the Second World War that it became the norm for people to forego teaching fees. With the passing of the Vocational Training Act (BBiG) in 1969, payment of a training allowance within the framework of dual vocational training became a legal obligation.

Legal regulation

The remuneration is based on months and is payable for the current calendar month on the last working day of the month at the latest ( Section 18 BBiG). The remuneration is also to be paid for the period of participation in vocational school lessons and examinations as well as for a period of up to six weeks if the vocational training is canceled or the trainee is prevented from fulfilling his obligations arising from the vocational training relationship for reasons inherent in himself through no fault of his own , for example in the event of illness ( Section 19 BBiG). Payment of remuneration on public holidays is regulated by the Continued Remuneration Act (EFZG), which also applies to those employed in their vocational training ( Section 1 (2) EFZG).

These regulations are indispensable ( § 25 BBiG).

The late notification of an illness does not affect the entitlement to continued payment of the training remuneration, but can lead to termination after a warning in the event of repetition.

Amount of training allowance

The remuneration of those employed for their vocational training is not subject to the German Minimum Wage Act ( Section 22 (3) MiLoG).

The training remuneration is usually set in collective agreements. The amount of training allowance varies according to occupation and federal state. The training remuneration must increase with the years of training ( Section 17 BBiG). While a hairdresser in the new federal states received an average of € 325 per month in the first year of apprenticeship in 2018, a vehicle interior decorator in the old federal states received € 804.

The level of training allowances is regularly a topic of political discussion.

  • On the one hand, it is pointed out that training allowances are inappropriately low in some sectors.
  • On the other hand, the overall level of training allowances is viewed as a reason for the companies' unwillingness to provide training.

The training allowance is no longer appropriate if it is less than 80 percent of the collectively agreed training allowance in the industry.

In May 2019, plans by the federal government were announced to introduce a minimum remuneration for trainees from 2020, which will initially amount to 515 euros in the first year of training and increase to 620 euros by 2023. In 2018, however, only the remuneration for trainees for the hairdresser and chimney sweep and in East Germany for the butcher's profession was below this level (see individual evidence of the collectively agreed training remuneration).

In October 2019, the introduction of the minimum remuneration for January 1, 2020 was decided by the Bundestag.

Tax treatment

For tax purposes, the training allowance is part of the income from employment, regardless of its amount . Whether wage tax is to be withheld depends on the amount of the training remuneration and the individual wage tax deduction features ( wage tax class ) of the trainee. In 2019, an unmarried trainee in wage tax class 1 up to a gross wage of approx. 1,050 euros per month will not incur any wage tax.

See also

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Education: Illness (incapacity for work) website of the IHK Düsseldorf, accessed on May 31, 2019
  2. ^ BAG DB 1971, 2265
  3. Collective training allowances 2018 in the old and new federal states Training allowances database of the Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BBiB)
  4. BAG, April 29, 2015, AZ 9 AZR 108/14
  5. Ministry of Education confirms: Minimum wage for apprentices will come from 2020 RBB , May 13, 2019
  6. Federal Cabinet decides minimum wage for trainees Deutsche Handwerks Zeitung , May 15, 2019