Beam position

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The load-bearing construction of a ceiling or a floor is referred to as a joist layer if it is designed as a wooden joist ceiling . When laying the joist, the dimension over the wood must be taken into account in the planning , which must be adapted to the covering. The beam position is usually oriented in one direction, which can change in multi-storey buildings in order to load the load-bearing outer walls evenly. In special situations, e.g. B. in corner houses, the bars can be oriented differently. The distances between the individual bars should be as equal as possible. In practice, this is not always possible, as the floor plan specifies wall beams and recesses for chimneys and stairs should be built without changing if possible . In the case of multi-storey houses, the beams are connected lengthwise and crosswise to the outer walls with metal parts at regular intervals in order to stabilize the wall. These parts, called split pins, are often visible on the outside. The joist layer is stiffened using the floorboards or diagonally positioned metal strips ( crossover ).

Beam position in a corner plan

Designations of the woods in the joist layer


The local beam , also known as the gable beam , lies on an outer wall or the gable. This beam, and two or three others, are now mostly anchored in the wall with metal struts that are perpendicular to the beams.

Wall beams

A wall beam lies in an internal partition, which must be very narrow so that the boards can still rest on top. Wall beams are typical for interior frameworks. There are no bars in the outer walls, but a few centimeters apart so as not to get damp. They paint the wall and are therefore also called paint bars .

Empty bar

The empty beam is a beam that lies in the beam layer without interruption and without connection to other timbers. It is also called a whole beam.

Beam position for an irregular floor plan


The change in the joist position has the same function as the change in the roof structure . If a recess is required in the joist layer that cuts through a joist, then exchanges are used that carry the loose end of the severed joist. The change is at right angles to the beam position and is attached to the next continuous beam, or lies on a load-bearing wall.

Changing bars

The term changing bar is used inconsistently. On the one hand, the term describes a full-length bar that is followed by a change. In some sources, however, the change itself is referred to as a changing bar .

Stitch bar

A stitch bar is a bar with a shortened length that z. B. rests on one end on a change, and is used when the dimension over wood is too large or an opening interrupts the beam. The stitch bar stabs towards the change. Branch beams are also used when cantilevered components such as balconies or bay windows are built on one side parallel to the beam position.

Wall stitch bar

Is about the same as the stitch bar, only that it rests against a wall or a gable.

Corner stitch

The corner stitch , also Gratstichbalken called, stands at the outer corner between the last beams of the floor joists and the last thrusting it Stichbalken forth. The corner stitch is mainly required on hipped roofs when there is a layer of joists. The corner stitch runs under the rafter. With equally inclined roof sides, the corner stitch runs at a 45 ° angle to the frame. In the case of roof sides with different slopes, the corner stitch runs at the appropriate angle to the frame.

Individual evidence

  1. Otto Lueger (Ed.): Lexicon of the entire technology with its auxiliary sciences, Vol. 1 . DVA, Stuttgart 1914, p. 529.
  2. Manfred Gerner : Handwerkerlexikon. Dictionary for the building trade. 2nd Edition. Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart 1993, p. 203, ISBN 3-421-02825-7 .
  3. Günther Binding (Ed.): Specialized terminology for historical timber construction. Fachwerk - Dachwerk (publication by the Department of Architectural History of the Art History Institute of the University of Cologne; Vol. 38). 2nd revised edition, Cologne 1990, p. 9 and p. 40/41.
  4. a b Theodor Böhm: Handbook of wooden structures. With special consideration of the timber construction . Reprint-Verlag Leipzig, Holzminden 1997, ISBN 3-8262-0207-4 , p. 118 (unchanged 6th reprint edition of the edition Verlag Julius Springer, Berlin 1911).