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A non- resident (also resident, assessor , resident , protective relative, protection citizen , back seat ) is a citizen of a city with limited citizenship . The difference between citizens and residents developed in medieval town law and existed until the 19th century, in Switzerland until the Federal Constitution was changed in 1874.

Legal Status

Spouses were originally the lowest social class in a village. They were only tolerated in the community. If they somehow became a burden, they had to move away.

As a rule, only those who were the son of a citizen or had a certain fortune could become a full citizen of a city. Often only members of certain professions, for example craftsmen capable of guilds, and certain denominations were allowed to exercise citizenship. In Augsburg, for example, assessors were not allowed to acquire real estate or to pursue a guild trade, since admission to a craft corporation, but also to the gentleman's or merchant's room, required citizenship. Associated with civil rights was civil duty , for example tax and official duties, as well as taking a citizen's oath .

An aside was also subject to the protection of the city charter, but had to pay an attendance fee for “protection and umbrella”. As a rule, residents were subject to municipal jurisdiction, but were excluded from essential political rights, such as representation in the council . The epitome of the rights granted to them is the right to be seated, their constitutional charter is the person to be seated order, and the tax to be paid is the person's allowance. As a pledge for the observance of his obligations, the assassin used to take the advisor's oath.

The constitutional documents of the individual German states passed after 1848 almost entirely eliminated the difference between actual citizens and protected citizens , as had already happened in individual states, for example in Baden through the law of 1831. In Switzerland, the difference between full citizens and residents or residents is still used in practice in the civil parish . There is hardly a community there that does not contain a greater or lesser number of settled people in addition to the actual community members.

See also


  • Eberhard Isenmann : The German city in the Middle Ages 1150–1550. City shape, law, constitution, city government, church, society, economy. Vienna [u. a.] 2012.
  • Eberhard Sandmann: The civil rights in medieval Frankfurt. Frankfurt am Main 1957 (dissertation).
  • Rainer Christoph Schwinges (ed.): New citizens in the late Middle Ages. Migration and exchange in the urban landscape of the old empire (1250–1550) (= Journal for Historical Research, Supplement 30 ). Berlin 2002.

Web links

Wiktionary: Beisaß  - explanations of meanings, word origins , synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. ^ André Holenstein: Hintersassen. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
  2. Hans-Rainer Schmid: On the administration of the patch Nattheim 1623-1948 and from field, sheep and cattle herding publications of the museum association Geschichtswerkstatt Nattheim eV, 2005, p. 103 ff., 115
  3. Advisory Board . Augsburger Stadtlexikon Online, accessed on January 28, 2018 ( homepage )
  4. ^ Johann Jakob Rüttimann : About the history of Swiss municipal citizenship. Zurich 1862 ( online version of the book ).