A surface-to-surface missile is a missile that is fired from the ground at ground targets.
The spectrum of surface-to-surface missiles ranges from anti-tank weapons of the infantry (such as bazooka or rocket grenades , e.g. RPG-7 ) to nuclear ICBMs .
It is also common to use the term for artillery rockets for indirect fire . These include unguided rockets fired by rocket launchers , such as the Katyusha ("Stalin organ") , which reach ranges between 10 and 90 km, sometimes even 300 km.
Also, mines can be placed by means of ground-to-ground missiles (z. B. butterfly mines ).
The English name is surface-to-surface missile . The abbreviation of this designation, SSM or SS , is used to name numerous surface-to-surface missiles (e.g. SS-20 ), which is originally the NATO code.
Missiles that can reach targets that are out of sight of the shooter are also known as beyond visual range missiles.
Development in Germany
Because of the stipulations in the Versailles Treaty , the German Reich was not allowed to develop or own heavy artillery. Long-range missiles were not mentioned in the contract. At the end of the 1920s, the Reichswehr sent Walter Dornberger to study mechanical engineering at the Technical University of Charlottenburg . There he met Arthur Rudolph , who was working on rocket experiments at the Heylandt factory. Rudolph showed interest and from then on worked in his free time together with Walter JH Riedel on Valier's rocket projects. On May 17, 1930, the day after Arthur Rudolph started work on the rocket project, rocket pioneer Max Valier died in the explosion of a rocket engine prototype. Further rocket experiments were initially prohibited by Paulus Heylandt , but Rudolph continued his work together with Riedel and Alfons Pietsch . After completing his studies, Dornberger was assigned the development of solid rockets in the Army Weapons Office in 1932 . He recruited Wernher von Braun and others. In 1936, Dornberger was given responsibility for the army's rocket development, which led to the development of Unit 4 (A4, better known as V2 ). From 1936 to 1943 Dornberger was head of the missile department of the Army Weapons Office , after which he became the commander of the Peenemünde Army Research Center .
Even ballistic missiles are the most used its own control system, ground-to-ground missiles to better hit accuracy ( CEP ) to achieve. According to the Range Association, London and the Center for Defense and International Security Studies (CDISS), since 1996 they have been classified according to their range as follows:
|class||International designation||Range [km]|
|Battlefield short-range missiles||Battlefield Short Range Ballistic Missiles (BSRBM)||0 to 150|
|Short-range missiles||Short Range Ballistic Missiles (SRBM)||150 to 799 (earlier to 999)|
|Medium-range medium-range missiles||Medium Range Ballistic Missiles (MRBM)||800 to 2,399 (previously 1,000 to 2,700)|
|Long-range medium- range missiles||Intermediate Range Ballistic Missiles (IRBM)||2,400 to 5,499 (previously 2,700 to 5,500)|
|ICBMs||Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBM)||5,500 to 15,000|
|Submarine ballistic missiles||Submarine Launched Ballistic Missiles (SLBM)||no range classification|
The payload of these missiles is very diverse, ranging from simple explosive charges to thermonuclear warheads .
- List of nuclear surface-to-surface missiles
- Surface-to-air missile
- Air-to-surface missile
- Air-to-air missile
- Anti-ship missile