|founder||Iain Chalmers, Peter C. Gøtzsche|
|Seat||London , England|
|main emphasis||Health care, evidence-based medicine, science|
|method||systematic reviews , meta-analyzes|
Cochrane [ˈkɒkɹən], also known as the Cochrane Collaboration , is a global, independent network (business form: charity under British law) of scientists, doctors, healthcare professionals, patients and other people interested in health issues. Cochrane is committed to ensuring that health decisions around the world are based on high quality, relevant, and up-to-date scientific evidence and promotes evidence-based health decision-making through the creation and dissemination of high quality systematic reviews and meta-analyzes and other formats of processed evidence.
Cochrane was founded in 1993 by Iain Chalmers in Oxford . It is named after the British doctor and epidemiologist Archie Cochrane . The organization is based in London . More than 79,000 members and supporters from over 130 countries contribute to the work of Cochrane worldwide (as of June 2020).
The founding of Cochrane goes back to the work of its namesake Archie Cochrane , who criticized the lack of reliable evidence for many clinical (diagnostic and therapeutic) procedures in health care and called for systematic reviews of all available randomized controlled trials as a basis for their evaluation.
The overarching goals of Cochrane are documented in a strategy document published in 2013, the Strategy to 2020 . The primary goal is to create high-quality, relevant and up-to-date systematic reviews ( reviews , including meta-analyzes ) as well as other formats for preparing evidence in order to facilitate decision-making on health issues. The creation of the systematic reviews created by Cochrane, the Cochrane Reviews, follows a uniform formal and structural procedure. All Cochrane Reviews are published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (CDSR), which is part of the Cochrane Library , Cochrane's online library . In addition to preparing Cochrane Reviews, Cochrane is also dedicated to the further development of existing and the development of new methods for processing evidence. Another goal of Cochrane is to make Cochrane evidence accessible and usable for all people around the world in order to enable the broadest possible transfer of knowledge . Activities to achieve this goal include free worldwide access to the Cochrane Library (i.e. to basic information on all Cochrane reviews as well as to the full texts of many reviews - unrestricted access requires a fee-based license) and the creation of easy-to-understand summaries as part of every Cochrane review Translation into numerous languages as well as close cooperation with patients and laypeople.
The governing board is the highest governing body of Cochrane. This currently consists of 13 people (as of June 2020). At least half of the members of the governing board are elected by the Cochrane members. Cochrane's organizational structure includes a number of different levels, boards and roles.
Review groups and networks
The creation of the Cochrane reviews will be from the current worldwide 54 Cochrane Review Groups ( review groups coordinated CRGs), each in charge of a specific subject area (as of June 2020). Examples of review groups are Cochrane Breast Cancer (breast cancer group), Cochrane Stroke (stroke group), and Cochrane Heart (heart group). Two review groups are based in Germany: Cochrane Hematology , based in Cologne (and Oxford, GB), and Cochrane Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders , based in Düsseldorf.
Each review group is one of eight Review groups networks ( Review Group networks assigned), whose task is to ensure the efficient and timely creation of high quality reviews. The networks were established in 2018; they are: Cochrane Abdomen and Endocrine , Cochrane Acute and Emergency Care , Cochrane Cancer , Cochrane Children and Families , Cochrane Circulation and Breathing , Cochrane Mental Health and Neuroscience , Cochrane Musculoskeletal, Oral, Skin and Sensory and Cochrane Public Health and Health Systems .
The geographical Cochrane groups ( geographic groups ) represent Cochrane, promote and support the use of Cochrane evidence in health policy and health care practice and support members and supporters of Cochrane in each country. There are currently geographic Cochrane groups in 43 countries (as of June 2020).
Three geographical Cochrane groups represent the German-speaking area:
Cochrane Germany was founded in 1997 under the name German Cochrane Center at the University Medical Center Freiburg. Until 2018, the center was headed by its founder Gerd Antes . In 2017, two cooperating institutions emerged from the German Cochrane Center: the Institute for Evidence in Medicine (for Cochrane Germany Foundation) (IfEM), as an institution of the Medical Faculty of the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg , and the Cochrane Germany Foundation (CDS ), a consumer foundation initially set up for 10 years. The IfEM is partly financed by the Freiburg University Medical Center and the Medical Faculty of the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg. The foundation is funded by the Federal Ministry of Health (BMG) with institutional funding of up to 1 million euros per year. Cochrane Germany is managed by Joerg J. Meerpohl (Director and Scientific Director), who has been Co-Director of Cochrane Germany since 2015, and Alex Kaiser (Executive Director) (as of August 2020).
Cochrane Austria was founded in 2010 and is based at the Department for Evidence-Based Medicine and Evaluation at Danube University Krems . Cochrane Austria is funded by the Lower Austrian Health and Social Fund (NÖGUS) with the support of Danube University Krems. It is headed by Gerald Gartlehner (Director) and Barbara Nußbaumer-Streit (Deputy Director) (as of June 2020).
Cochrane Switzerland was founded in 2010 and is based at the Center universitaire de médecine générale et santé publique (Unisanté) at the University of Lausanne . Cochrane Switzerland operates in all three language regions of Switzerland and is headed by Erik von Elm (as of June 2020).
Cochrane has currently (as of June 2020) 13 interdisciplinary, thematic fields ( Fields ), which focus on other aspects of health care as certain diseases or specific themes, such as the coverage area (rehabilitation, Cochrane Rehabilitation ), groups (children, Cochrane Child Health ) or care providers (Nursing Cochrane Nursing ).
Cochrane has currently (as of October 2019) 17 Methods Groups ( Methods Groups ), which provide a forum for discussion on the development and application of methods that are applied in the preparation of Cochrane Review. Examples of methodical groups are Cochrane Bias Methods , Cochrane Prognosis Methods or Cochrane Statistical Methods.
Financing, funding and partners
Cochrane is funded by revenue from the Cochrane Library and other Cochrane products, as well as support from national governments, international government and non-governmental organizations, universities, clinics, private sponsorship, and personal donations. To ensure scientific independence, Cochrane has strict principles and rules for commercial (financial) sponsorship and dealing with conflicts of interest.These include, among other things, that Cochrane does not receive any commercial sponsorship from the pharmaceutical or medical industry or from others in conflict with the interests of Cochrane standing sources accepted.
Cochrane has various sponsors and partners . Among the sponsors are among the UK's National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), the UK's National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), the German Federal Ministry of Health (BMG), the Danish Government (Rigshospitalet Research Association) and the South African Medical Research Council (SAMRC). Among the partners include all trials, the Campbell Collaboration, Epistemonikos, Evidence Aid, the Guidelines International Network (GIN), Wikipedia, Wiley and the World Health Organization (WHO).
Cochrane for everyone: opportunities to participate
Cochrane offers a number of offers for the general public, that is to say for everyone who is interested in the work of Cochrane and would like to participate actively in it. The Cochrane Consumer Network is a global network of patients, caregivers, and family members who have had their own experience of a health problem and are interested in high-quality health evidence. In addition to an extensive range of information, the Consumer Network offers, among other things, the opportunity to actively participate in the preparation of Cochrane Reviews. In November 2019 it comprised over 1,500 people from 89 countries. The Citizen Science platform Cochrane Crowd provides citizen scientists ( Citizen Scientists ) and other volunteers the ways to get around the identification and classification of scientific studies as the basis for the decision to participate in various tasks to health issues. The Task Exchange platform offers all members of the Cochrane and international evidence community the opportunity to network for mutual support in various tasks.
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