The notion of a commune nouvelle in France is for newly created communities used by the independent merger to date municipalities by decree arise. The legal basis for this is laid down in Article 21 of Law No. 2010-1563 of December 16, 2010 (“Reform of local authorities”). This procedure was created in order to simplify the reorganization of communities, and enables both adjacent communities and entire community associations that want to change to a "Commune nouvelle". It replaces the relevant provisions for the creation of communes associées under the Marcellin law of July 16, 1971.
A "Commune nouvelle" can be created in the area of adjacent communities:
- at the request of all municipal councils ,
- at the request of at least two thirds of the municipal councils of a municipal association,
- at the request of the body that advises a community association with regard to the establishment of a common "Commune nouvelle" for all its member communities,
- at the initiative of the representative of the state in the département , the prefect .
The “Commune nouvelle” is externally a municipality endowed with the same powers as all other French municipalities. Internally, it is a special administrative organization at community level that takes into account the interests of the individual communities involved.
The amalgamated former municipalities mostly remain in the form of communes déléguées , which take over the name and the territorial boundaries of the former municipalities and represent their interests. After a consultation, the municipal council of the “Commune nouvelle” can also decide not to take over the delegates from the former municipalities and therefore not to install “Communes déléguées”.
The main reason for the emergence of new large communities in the various regions of France is the continuous and in many cases still persistent population decline in the rural communities (communes rurales) since the middle of the 19th or the beginning of the 20th century; this is mainly due to the abandonment of small farms and the mechanization of agriculture and the associated loss of jobs.
- Legal basis on legifrance.gouv.fr