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Darshan or Darshana ( Sanskrit , n., दर्शन , darśana , for contemplation, observation, meeting, philosophy; see from drish ) also as the six views of Shaddarshanas (Sanskrit षड्दर्शन ṣaḍdarśana; the six (Shash) points of view (Darshana)) is a word of great variety of meanings, which is often used in spiritual contexts in Hinduism , but also in Buddhism .

So it stands in Hinduism for the view and vision of the holy and divine (blessed sight of a god or saint). Under Darshana e.g. B. the official meeting of students and masters is understood to which the students are invited by the master. But it can also mean immersing oneself while looking at an image of a god. The latter meaning is most common in Hindi usage today . In connection with Mata Amritanandamayi , darshan means the embrace by the Guru .

Devout Hindus go to the temple to get the sight of a god through a symbol or statue in which the spiritual presence of the deity is assumed, in this sense also a blessing from the deity. However, darshan can also be received through a vision of the deity through prayer or meditation . Also a living person who is considered to be the incarnation of the deity, such as B. an avatar can give darshan.

The term is also understood in the sense of “view” or “way of looking at things,” and thus each darshana is an attempt to show how the world can be seen from a certain point of view. The systems of classical Indian philosophy are therefore called "darshanas".

The individual darshanas only developed over time. So the first four darshanas initially formed a unit, the parts of which developed into independent systems through divergent considerations. The views of the last two systems, Nyaya and Vaisheshika, belong to a later stage of development; however, were linked to the original considerations in many ways.

In order to differentiate the six orthodox from the heterodox systems Buddhism , Charvaka and Jainism or their philosophical branches, which in contrast to the former do not recognize the authority of the Veda , the sacred Indian texts, the orthodox side often uses the adjective additions " astika ”(orthodox) and“ nastika ”(heterodox) are used. In addition, the collective term "Shad Darshanas" has become established in Hindu language for the philosophical traditions that refer to the Veda (Sanskrit: "shad" = six).

Lesson scene ( darshan ) on the platform of the Lakshmana Temple in the temple district of Khajuraho . Some of the seated students wear knee bands to help them concentrate.

Six darshanas

The six orthodox darshanas - arranged according to their historical development - are:

The metaphysics of the last two systems is practically the same and this has resulted in them being temporarily merged into a system called Nyaya-Vaisheshika.

See also