The German memo , or DENO for short , was invented by Georg Paucker (1910–1979) and first published in 1966 . The 2nd edition appeared in 1987 . DENO is a very easy-to-learn abbreviation font with which, according to the author, the speed of long-writing can be doubled or tripled.
This font is - in contrast to speedwriting with only shortened long-written characters - a mixture of the characters of the long script, i.e. conventional cursive script , and shorthand characters. The set of rules is based on the shorthand reduction principles.
The consonants mainly consist of the characters in long script. D, l, q, x and y were adopted completely unchanged. With other co-autographs there are various savings in lettering and simplifications. So z. B. with n the last smear is not round, but pointed. B, h and k lose the loop at the beginning of the word. The t loses the dash. Quite a number of consonants and consonants such as f, g, m, sch, schw, t at the end of the word after consonants, w, zw, on the other hand, are separate shorthand characters that also occur in the German unified shorthand, albeit with a different meaning (except m) .
The vowels are symbolically indicated, if they are followed by a consonance, as in the German unified shorthand by different connection widths as well as superscript and subscript. There are no reinforcements, as these are a hindrance to most pens when using the ballpoint pen. There are six vowel symbols: close connection for e, ä and ö; wide connection for a; close connection and superscript for i and ü; wide connection and superscript for ei, ai, eu and äu; close connection and subscript for u and au; Wide connection and subscript for o. In the rare cases where there is a risk of confusion, lines above or below are used to distinguish. If a vowel is not followed by a consonance, it is represented literally, and in certain cases also omitted.
There are around 50 abbreviations for the most frequent words, ie characters for the statistically most frequent words, prefixes and suffixes. Many of them are longhand characters, while others are shorthand. So z. B. the abbreviation for the sound sequence en at the end of the word taken from the Stolze-Schrey system . There are also a number of ellipsis rules for certain sounds, syllables and parts of words.
The spelling is typically shorthand, e.g. B. no doubling of consonant, omission of stretching h, no capitalization. For a special differentiation if there is a risk of confusion, lines are placed above or below the sound. However, the context almost always makes these distinctive signs superfluous.
The appendix to the textbook of the German memo shows a few more abbreviations. In shorthand, these are “optional” abbreviations. However, it is up to the user whether and to what extent he uses them. So z. B. also available for d, h and n real shorthand characters instead of the system-correct long-written characters.
Another abbreviation , which is also a mixture of longhand and shorthand, was developed by the then President of the German Stenographers Association EV Karl Wilhelm Henke and the then Vice-President Konrad Weber and published in 2002. This "Neue Notschrift" has a higher proportion of longhand and is almost entirely based on the German unified shorthand in the stenographic part, but with a much simpler set of rules.
- The Austrian stenographer. 10/1966, pp. 275-276.
- Fritz Haeger: Expert opinion on the German memo (Deno). In: The stenography teacher. Scientific monthly to promote the teaching of shorthand, typing, and related fields. 11/1966, pp. 269-273.
- L. Haverkamp: The German memo. Munich undated
- Walter Kaden: New history of shorthand. From the creation of writing to contemporary shorthand. Dresden 1999, .
- Branko Kojic: Shorthand as a memo. In: Report of the 34th Intersteno Congress 1981 from July 18 to 24 in Mannheim. 1981, p. 104. (including about DENO)
- Arthur Mentz among others: History of the shorthand. 3. Edition. Wolfenbüttel 1981.
- Franz Moser among other things: Living shorthand story. A guide to shorthand theory and shorthand history. 9th edition. Darmstadt 1990, ISBN 3-8045-8708-9 .
- Georg Paucker: German memo. Detailed instructions. Munich 1966.
- Fight for craquelure . In: Der Spiegel . No. 45 , 1966, pp. 174 ( online - also to DENO).
- Hans-Jürgen Bäse: The new note from Karl Wilhelm Henke and Konrad Weber.