|India ( Jammu and Kashmir )|
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doi (macro language)
Individual languages included:
In the past, Dogri was often viewed as a dialect of Punjabi , but is now recognized as an independent language and is increasingly promoted as a written language . It used to be written in its own script ( Takri ), today Devanagari is preferred , but also Nastaliq , a variant of the Arabic script . There are attempts to revive the Takri script.
Dogri is mainly spoken in the area around the city of Jammu in the southwest of the north Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir . According to the 2011 Indian census, nearly 2.6 million people speak Dogri as their mother tongue. Dogri is recognized as one of 22 constitutional languages in India on a supraregional level .
Development of language and literature
Dogri is derived from Sauraseni , one of the prakrit languages used in northern India . Accordingly, the vocabulary of Dogri mainly contains Sanskrit- derived vocabulary, but also contains many loan words from Arabic , Persian , English and the Turkic languages . The earliest evidence of a language called Dogri can be found in a work by the Indo-Persian poet Amir Chusrau (1253–1325), in which he lists various North Indian languages. Some words have even been handed down through inscriptions from the 12th century. Nevertheless, the earliest literary work in Dogri, a translation from Persian, dates from the second half of the 18th century. A few poems emerged towards the end of the 18th and 19th centuries. Only in the course of the 20th century did a lively, diverse literature finally develop in all genres, which made the language increasingly valid and even recognized it as an official language. The poet Padma Sachdev is considered the most important contemporary representative of Dogri literature .