Rotation rate sensor
|Roll-Nick-Yaw angle ( Euler angle )|
|Rotation axes :||Move:|
|↙ Longitudinal axis (roll / roll axis) :||Roll , sway|
|↖ transverse axis (pitch axis) :||Nod, stamp|
|↓ vertical axis (yaw axis) :||Yaw (roll)|
In order to determine the rate of rotation, essentially two measuring principles are used.
- Coriolis force acting on a mechanically moving system.
- Sagnac effect observed in light.
By integrating the measured angular velocity, it is possible to derive the angle by which a body has turned within a period of time .
Today, high-precision rotation rate sensors for the navigation of aircraft or rockets are based on fiber optic gyroscopes (Sagnac effect). In the cheaper micromechanical yaw rate sensors, a distinction is made between integrated sensors, in which the electronic evaluation circuit and the MEMS sensor core are integrated in one chip, and discrete sensors. They consist of a separate micromechanical chip (MEMS chip) and a user-specific electronic chip ( ASIC ). Micromechanical DRS have been used widely in consumer electronics since 2009. In smartphones, DRS control e.g. B. Games or navigation applications. In game consoles, DRS reproduce the movements of the player. MEMS-based DRS have two micromechanically worked out masses that are connected to one another via a spring structure. You will have an i. d. Usually electromagnetically operating actuators are set in oscillation. A rotation around the center of this arrangement now leads to Coriolis forces acting on the masses, which cause a lateral deflection of the masses. This is measured using a capacitive arrangement.
- Navigation : In inertial and GPS navigation devices , in the latter for bridging distances without satellite contact.
- Automotive technology : In automotive technology today, the yaw rate for driving stability systems (e.g. ESP ) and navigation (see above) or all axes of rotation for roll-over detection are usually measured with silicon-based micromechanical rotation rate sensors. According to the literature, the sensor is ideally located in the vehicle's center of gravity.
- Digital photography : With falling prices for MEMS-based sensors, acceleration and rotation rate sensors are also being used for image stabilization in digital cameras .
- Karl-Heinz Dietsche, Thomas Jäger, Robert Bosch GmbH: Automotive pocket book. 25th edition, Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn Verlag, Wiesbaden, 2003, ISBN 3-528-23876-3
- Jörg Böttcher: Online Compendium Measurement Technology and Sensor Technology: Rotation Rate Sensors. Retrieved November 28, 2019 .
- Bernd Heißing: Chassis Manual ; 1st edition, Vieweg Verlag, page 187, ISBN 978-3-8348-0105-0