Discovery and Structure
The dynorphins were first discovered by Avram Goldstein in the mid-1970s. They are oligopeptides . The following are counted among the dynorphins:
- Dynorphin A (C 75 H 126 N 24 O 15 1603.9 Da )
- Dynorphin B (C 74 H 115 N 21 O 17 1570.8 Da)
- Big Dynorphin (the peptide sequence consists of Dynorphin A and Dynorphin B)
see main article Opioid Receptor
The receptors for the dynorphins are the κ 1 - opioid receptors , which belong to the group of G-protein-coupled receptors . Various nerve cells produce the dynorphins, for example in the spinal cord , hypothalamus and hippocampus . Among other things, the dynorphins cause the pain to be switched off ( analgesia ) and calm ( sedation ). In some cases, a depressed mood ( dysphoria ) may also occur. The dynorphins are antagonists of cocaine , which has a rather euphoric effect.
- A. Goldstein et al: Dynorphin- (1-13), an extraordinarily potent opioid peptide. In: Proc Natl Acad Sci , 76/1979, pp. 6666-70. PMID 230519 .
- K. Tan-No et al .: Intrathecally administered big dynorphin, a prodynorphin-derived peptide, produces nociceptive behavior through an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor mechanism. In: Brain Res , 952/2002, pp. 7-14. PMID 12363399
- J. Schultz, J. Graw: Enkephalins - endorphins - endogenous opiate agonists. In: Pharmacy in our time , 6/2006, pp. 163–170.