The measurement of emissions from anthropogenic sources is called emission measurement .
The operation of technical systems is usually associated with emissions. In addition to air pollution, this also includes vibrations , noise , light and rays . If they cannot be avoided, these should be reduced. That is why legal regulations, such as EC directives, ordinances or permits, set emission limit values . As a rule, compliance with these limit values must be proven by measurements.
The results obtained through emission measurements must be representative and comparable with one another. The selectivity of a measurement process must be high and the cross-sensitivity correspondingly low. Monitoring of limit values must also be possible with the measuring method. Measuring stations must be easily accessible. The personnel performing the measurements must be adequately qualified. The result of the measurements is to be recorded in a measurement report. Measurement uncertainties and boundary conditions must be specified. The TA Luft stipulates that emission measurements are to be carried out during undisturbed operation with the highest emissions.
Measurement components that are present in particle or vapor form must always be recorded using isokinetic sampling . A network measurement must be provided for measuring cross-sections with an area of at least 0.1 m 2 . Inhomogeneous distributions of the component to be measured in the flow channel to be sampled are thus taken into account.
Emission measuring devices can be both stationary and mobile . The measurements can be carried out continuously or as individual measurements.
Measurement objects are usually the air pollutants and odors, noises and vibrations emanating from a stationary or mobile system .
When measuring air pollutants, these are identified and quantified. As a rule, they are determined as a concentration. For the purpose of comparability, the gas volume is based on normal conditions . For this reason, variables are often recorded for which no limit value is specified. Various standardized emission measurement methods for air pollutants are described in VDI guidelines and DIN standards .
In the noise emission measurement, the sound power emanating from a sound source is determined using the sound power level .
- VDI 3951: 2013-09 Overview on relevant regulations on the performance of emission measurements. Beuth Verlag, Berlin. ( Summary and table of contents online )
- ↑ DIN EN 15267-3: 2008-03 air quality ; Certification of automatic measuring devices; Part 3: Minimum requirements and test procedures for automatic measuring systems for monitoring emissions from stationary sources; German version EN 15267-3: 2007. Beuth Verlag, Berlin, p. 11.
- ^ A b Franz Joseph Dreyhaupt (Ed.): VDI-Lexikon Umwelttechnik. VDI-Verlag Düsseldorf 1994, ISBN 3-18-400891-6 , p. 417.
- ↑ Anita Schmidt: More security through measurement uncertainty in testing. In: Hazardous substances - cleanliness. Air . 63, No. 1, 2003, ISSN 0949-8036 , pp. 481-486.
- ↑ VDI 2066 sheet 1: 2006-11 measurement of particles; Dust measurements in flowing gases; Gravimetric determination of dust load (Particulate matter measurement; Dust measurement in flowing gases; Gravimetric determination of dust load). Beuth Verlag, Berlin, p. 19.
- ↑ VDI 3460 sheet 1 : 2014-02 emission reduction; Thermal waste treatment; Basics (Emission control; Thermal waste treatment; Fundamentals). Beuth Verlag, Berlin. Pp. 131, 182-183.
- ^ Franz Joseph Dreyhaupt (ed.): VDI-Lexikon Umwelttechnik. VDI-Verlag Düsseldorf 1994, ISBN 3-18-400891-6 , p. 567.