Conquest of Philadelphia

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Siege of Philadelphia
Map of Asia Minor
Map of Asia Minor
date 1378 - 1390
place Alaşehir , Asia Minor
output Ottoman victory
Parties to the conflict

Greek residents of Philadelphia

Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire ,
Byzantines (as vassals)



Ottoman Empire Bayezid I
Manuel II (vassal)
John VII (vassal)

The conquest of Philadelphia meant the fall of the last remaining Christian city inland Asia Minor to the Muslim Ottoman Turks . The attacking army also included a contingent of the Byzantine Empire , which had become a vassal of the Turks.

The city in Lydia had long been able to prevent its fall to the Turks by paying protection money to the Turkish ghazis , whose hordes of robbers attacked all those who refused to pay a poll tax ( jizya ), even though the city was not actually under Islamic jurisdiction . Theoretically, the city belonged to the Byzantine Empire, but was cut off from the empire by the Ottoman hinterland and was de facto autonomous.

In 1378, Manuel II Palaiologos pledged Philadelphia to the Turks in return for Ottoman assistance in the Byzantine Civil War . But it seems that the Philadelphians have refused to surrender, because in 1390 Bayezid I ordered the two opponents in the Byzantine civil war, John VII and Manuel II, to accompany his army on a campaign against the city. In the same year the city was taken by the Turks.