Error in electronic circuits

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If electronic circuits react incorrectly , this can basically have four causes:

  1. Design flaws - like bugs in software , they occur during development and should be repaired during this phase . If they remain undetected like the Pentium FDIV bug from 1994, they can cause high follow-up costs or damage .
  2. Production errors - They arise during production as individual errors or as series errors and are caused, for example, by faulty systems or means of production, faulty materials or materials, or due to human errors.
  3. Physical errors - they are divided into permanent, for example due to damage or wear and tear, and one-off, for example due to strong radiation.
  4. Input errors - they are caused by operating errors , by faulty interfaces or as a result of other malfunctions .

Physical errors in digital circuits are divided into several classes.

  • Stuck-at-Faults are errors in which gates at an input or output are stuck at a certain value . Depending on the value, a distinction is made between stuck-at-1 and stuck-at-0 errors.
  • As bridging faults are short circuits referred between two lines. This results in new functions of the affected gates. Input-output bridging means that the inputs and outputs of the circuit are connected to one another ( feedback ). This leads to time-dependent behavior, e.g. B. oscillating circuits.
  • In the case of transistors in particular, there are stuck-off errors (transistor always blocks), stuck-on errors (transistor always conducts) and gate delay faults and path delay faults that cause delays in signal processing.

By analyzing the circuit, an attempt is made to design test scenarios that are as effective as possible in order to detect as many errors as possible from the outset with as little effort as possible. In addition, you can design particularly critical circuits accordingly fault-tolerant . In order to identify possible errors in production, functional tests are carried out in production.


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