Fire control

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Artillery organization using the example of the PzGrenBrig 10. FUO = fire support officer
Connection VB - fire control - battery
idealized-stylized fire plan of the PzLehrBrig 9 (3rd PzDiv) in the UELZEN area
Danish artillery observer
Gunner at map work
Artillery training with the Afghan National Army
US gun crew at the Grafenwoehr training area
Firing US guns

In military tactics, fire control refers to the regulation of the battle by fire orders, fire orders and fire commands. The object and content of the fire control are the recognition or reconnaissance of the targets, the assignment of targets to the individual weapons involved in the battle, the definition of the ammunition and fire type, the fire command, the observation of the results and any corrections of the fire. The purpose of fire control is to make the best possible use of the firepower of all available weapons .

Fire control was of particular importance in conventional artillery , which usually works through the combined fire of several guns. Here the fire orders or fire commands are implemented by the fire control centers in fire commands (see below) to the weapon systems. Fire control is also common with any other troop, especially combat troops, at least at the beginning of the battle .


  • Fire orders are mainly for artillery and mortar fire fighting . They determine the goals to be combated and make demands for effectiveness with defined terms. You can also set the time, the forms of impact shooting and the use of ammunition.
  • Orders to fire are neither in wording nor in order stipulated instructions for certain weapons as to when, against what and how they should fire.
  • Fire commands are largely standardized instructions for fire fighting.
    • Fire commands for infantry combat are taught in the training of junior leaders and usually follow key words .
      • Consistent shopping word is Ereza or ERMEZA that for E nit, R ichtung, ( M unitionssorte), E ntfernung, Z iel, A base columns is - "gunner, half left on the edge, six bursts, 400 (m), anti-shooters FIRE “ ; The addressed shooter makes the appropriate settings on his weapon with each additional information and fires immediately at the execution command.
      • In Austria firing commands consist of the announcement command fire command and the execution command schematically the shopping word Areza follows, analogous to Ereza: A NRUF, R ichtung, E ntfernung, Z iel, A base columns.
    • Fire commands in conventional artillery are strictly formal orders from the fire control center to the guns or rocket launchers, specifying the direction of fire ( partial ring ), the height of the barrel, the type and quantity of ammunition and the fire control ( report readiness for fire! Or fire! ). After the introduction of autonomous weapon systems, fire control is limited to target assignment, use of ammunition and fire control.

The fire control officer or fire control unit converts fire orders from the combat troops into fire commands for the gun crews. A battery fire control system with a laser range finder works with weather sensors (wind force, temperature, etc.), radar devices and V 0 measuring radar devices . The fire commands can be transmitted by radio or wire. Other important data is the distance to the target, the position of the target, the type of target (e.g. buried Mot runners in position, combat vehicles, etc.) and the position relative to the firing position of the guns.

Fire control computer

The following fire control computers have been used in the history of the Bundeswehr :

Artillery computer type BUM

The artillery computer type BUM was the first electronic fire control computer for the army of the Bundeswehr .

FALKE fire control computer

The conversion of the fire control centers from the analog computer BUM 11 to the digital computer "Falke" took place in 1978. The new device was based on troop tests in the 1970s . The fire control computer FALKE TR84, the structure of a tube computer , its calculations u. a. based on the earth's rotation , was originally developed by the AEG company for fire control in armored artillery . Together with the ObPzArt , FALKE was part of the IFAB system (Integrated Fire Control Artillery Battery), the forerunner of the FüWES ADLER. The FeuerleitPzArt, an M113 , is present in every field howitzers / self-propelled howitzers that are firing and worked with the FALKE TR84 fire control computer. The fire control officer entered the following data into the FALKE TR84 fire control computer: target coordinates, gun coordinates, weather report (METCM) and the powder temperature of the propellant charges. From this, the FALKE system calculated a special fire command for each individual gun, taking into account the direction of fire (partial ring) and elevation. In contrast to the analogue artillery computer type BUM, the digital artillery computer FALKE was able to determine shot values ​​very quickly with the aid of a computer. The weaknesses of the system, however, lay in the fact that it was partly computer-based and partly with field cables . In addition to the Bundeswehr, the Syrian army also used the FALKE TR 84 artillery computer.

FALKE TR84 was organized in the basic structure of a management system as follows:

  • Advance observer with terminal, data transmission to a military computer
  • Acquisition of weather data, data transmission to a military computer
  • Military calculator
  • Operator terminal
  • Data Link - Terminal with connection to the battery fire control terminal
  • Data transmission to the guns

Possible sequence

A gun platoon fires a group until a new fire command is given via radio data transmission in the fire control center of the VB. As soon as the guns report that they are ready to fire, the FALKE fire control computer counts down from five to one, which triggers another group of projectiles to be triggered. The VB reports the effect of the fire: "Enemy combat reconnaissance smashed, fire pause, end." The gun platoon then moves into a new firing position.

ADLER command and weapon deployment system

The ADLER command and weapon deployment system (FüWES) represents a further development ( artillery, data, situation and deployment computer network ) for the optimal interaction of the areas of leadership - reconnaissance - effect in the artillery system network. Through automated data processing support through secure transmission It provides the prerequisite for the efficient use of artillery troops in a mobile battle. The FüWES ADLER maps the structure of the artillery in a network which, in addition to the reconnaissance systems, weapon deployment systems and active agents, also includes the command elements at all levels of the artillery.

ADLER can integrate the following components:

  • Operations centers (OPZ) on the management levels
  • Fire support officers (FUO) and artillery observers (VB) in the combat force
  • Command control centers
  • Artillery Liaison Officers (AVO)
  • Compound devices in third-party systems
  • Exchange of information between ADLER and the reconnaissance systems:
  • IT equipment fire control artillery / mortar
  • Integrated fire control device artillery battery (IFAB)
  • Artillery missile deployment system
  • Self-propelled howitzer 2000

See also

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Terry Gander and HJ Zurek: Arsenal of Arms. Arms and vehicles of the army and air force. Artillery today . Podzun-Pallas Publishing House. Friedberg. 1990, p. 17. ISBN 9-783-790-90405-5.
  2. Terry Gander and HJ Zurek: Arsenal of Arms. Arms and vehicles of the army and air force. Artillery today . Podzun-Pallas Publishing House. Friedberg. 1990, p. 22. ISBN 9-783-790-90405-5.
  3. ^ Panzerartilleriebataillon 365 - Memories of the "last" battalion of the German Army. Too same. Journal of the Artillery Troops 2/2010
  4. Arms export . Quiet and secret. The mirror. January 12, 1981
  5. War in the Aether. Mobile guidance systems (C3I systems). Hamfu History. Lectures at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich in the winter semester 1985/1986. Management: Federal Office for Transmission Troops, Division General J. Biedermann, Weapons Chief of the Transmission Troops
  6. three shots
  7. ADLER command and weapon deployment system