Aviation medical medical examination
An aviation medical medical examination can only be carried out by an officially recognized aviation medical expert ( aviation doctor ) in accordance with the official medical regulations for applicants for or holders of licenses for pilots . The experts are located in Germany either in one of the seven Aeromedical Centers (AeMC) or in aviation medical examination centers of classes 1 and 2. The result of such an examination is an aviation medical medical certificate . The fitness before the staff of the air traffic control ( air traffic controllers ) will be in Germany by the Aeromedical Center of Lufthansa performed in Hamburg.
Aim of the investigation
The aim of the examination is to clarify whether the person examined is fit to fly. If so, an aviation medical certificate can be issued. This in turn entitles the holder to exercise the rights from his pilot license.
As part of an aviation medical fitness examination, in addition to collecting the medical history and the physical examination, apparatus as well as blood and urine tests are carried out in order to rule out diseases whose presence and severity are incompatible with the exercise of the rights of an aircraft pilot's license. The minimum scope of the examinations is stipulated by law and can be expanded by the aviation doctor if there is an indication.
An initial examination includes an ophthalmological and an ENT examination, both of which can be carried out by the AeMC or the aviation physician class 1 or 2 for private pilots (class 2 certificate or Medical LAPL). In the case of professional and commercial pilots (class 1 certificate), the initial examination must be carried out in an Aeromedical Center (AeMC) with the involvement of the relevant specialists and a neurologist .
For follow-up examinations, holders of pilot licenses must regularly visit an AeMC or an aviation doctor at certain intervals, depending on the age and type of flying activity. Current lists of the officially appointed AeMC and the aviation medical examination centers (aviation doctors of classes 1 and 2) in Germany are available from the Federal Aviation Office and can also be accessed online.
Medical Certificate Classes
There are two different classes of medical certificates for pilots in Germany :
- Class 1: For professional aircraft pilots
- Class 2: For private aircraft pilots
- Medical certificate for LAPL: For private pilots with LAPL
In the three classes, different levels of requirements are placed on the state of health and the function of the organs. In class 1, the requirements are higher than in class 2. The scope of the medical suitability examinations differs accordingly and the conclusions when assessing health deficiencies can be different in class 1 than in class 2 or with the Medical LAPL.
Fitness to fly using the example of ametropia
The organ of vision was the most common obstacle to fitness in test subjects up to the 5th decade of life. During the initial examination for class 1 according to JAR-FCL3, both eyes were allowed to have a defective vision of at most + 5 / −6 diopters , for class 2 it was ± 5 diopters (for follow-up examinations up to −8). If a limit was exceeded during the regular follow-up examinations, the AeMC could issue special permits for class 1 pilots and a class 1 pilot's doctor for class 2 pilots.
A relatively common obstacle to fitness in men is color ametropia . If the applicant does not pass the color vision test ( Ishihara color chart ) at the flight doctor, a final clarification can be brought about via special additional tests (e.g. Lantern test). Since in modern glass cockpits an accompanying coding of the displays takes place largely via colors, a normal color sense is required for aircraft pilots of class 1. Class 2 pilots can fly with sufficient eyesight but limited color vision, often with a special permit and the requirement "Visual flight only during the day". AeMC and class 1 aviation doctors can issue the special permit required for this.
It should be noted that eyesight cannot be fixed solely on diopter and other measured values. The aviator has to demonstrate sufficient integral vision for the desired or to be performed activity. Example: If a class 2 test person needs minus 8 diopters, this initially seems sufficient. But it depends on his remaining field of vision whether he is actually suitable or not. The number of diopters alone is therefore not sufficient for an assessment.
In summary, the JAR-FCL3 generally offer the aviation doctor sufficient discretion for special permits when limits are exceeded, both explicitly and implicitly based on editorial deficiencies.
New guidelines from April 8, 2013
On April 8, 2013, the directly applicable regulation (EU) No. 1178/2011 came into force and replaced the JAR-FCL set of rules. Annex IV of this ordinance specifies the suitability criteria, which are now based more closely on the requirements of the ICAO . The main change compared to the criteria according to JAR-FCL3 is the acceptance of a somewhat lower visual acuity and the elimination of the dioptric limit. For class 1 medical certificates, however, the AeMC - a kind of implementing regulation - requires additional examinations from + 5 / −6 diopters. Since April 8, 2015, the rules from Regulation (EU) No. 1178/2011 on LAPL-Medical have also been applied. This medical certificate will be placed below Class 2 and will follow less stringent medical guidelines. From the age of 50 it has a longer validity than class 2 medical certificates. As it will not fully implement the requirements of the ICAO, countries that do not belong to EASA may refuse to recognize this medical certificate. Within the EASA states, this medical certificate will be the minimum medical requirement for exercising the rights of a pilot's license for light aircraft .
- J. Hinkelbein, E. Glaser (Ed.): Aviation medicine. 1st edition. UniMed-Verlag, Bremen 2007, ISBN 978-3-89599-954-3 .
- Joint Aviation Requirements - Flight Crew Licensing Part 3 -Medical- ( Memento from May 15, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 589 kB)
- List of AeMC in Germany. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on October 11, 2016 ; accessed on May 18, 2016 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Suitability guidelines according to JAR-FCL3 ( Memento from May 15, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 589 kB)
- List of LBA-recognized aeromedical centers in Germany
- List of LBA-recognized class 1 and 2 examination centers in Germany
- (PDF; 2.7 MB)
- Acceptable Means of Compliance and Guidance Material to Part-MED1 (PDF; 268 kB)