Anton Bettelheim (Hrsg.): Biographisches Jahrbuch and German Nekrolog. Volume 4, 1900, Reimer, Berlin
Hermann Kalkoff (Ed.): National Liberal Parliamentarians 1867–1917 of the Reichstag and the individual state parliaments. Publication distribution center of the National Liberal Party of Germany, Berlin 1917
^ Fritz Specht, Paul Schwabe: The Reichstag elections from 1867 to 1903. Statistics of the Reichstag elections together with the programs of the parties and a list of the elected representatives. 2nd Edition. Carl Heymann Verlag, Berlin 1904, p. 273.