Fear (<Old High German for (a) hta <Gothic faurhtei ) is the feeling of a threat. It describes the reaction of the psyche to a present or anticipated danger.
Siegbert Warwitz distinguishes concrete fear ( Latin timor ) from the concept of abstract, diffuse fear , as well as from panic or phobia . Fear possesses an object that can be grasped from within the world, can usually be justified rationally and is directed towards a specificity that is perceived as a real threat. It is therefore also referred to as "real fear". Fear, on the other hand, is an undirected emotional state, which, as a mood, affects the opening up of the world as a whole. Depending on the degree of abstractness or concreteness of the underlying complex of ideas, transitions between fear and fear are possible.
In the psychological and biological sense, a living being's fear of an object (living being, object or situation ) is its ( emotional ) reaction to the knowledge or the assumption that the object poses a danger . Fear is therefore vital as it motivates to take defensive measures against the threat (e.g. increased vigilance ), to avoid it or to confront it (" fight or flight ").
Yellowing leaves Laocoon in Aeneid the Trojans against the Greeks with the words warn :
Timeo Danaos et dona ferentes - with Schiller : "The Greeks I fear, even when they bring gifts." (Meaning the Trojan horse )
- Andreas Dorschel , Fear and Anxiety , in: Il cannochiale. rivista di studi filosofici. 1993, No. 3, pp. 53-72.
- Siegbert A. Warwitz : The function of fear and fear . In: Ders .: Search for meaning in risk. Life in growing rings. Explanatory models for cross-border behavior . 2nd ext. Ed., Verlag Schneider, Baltmannsweiler 2016, ISBN 978-3-8340-1620-1 , pp. 32–39.
- Siegbert A. Warwitz: The field of fearful feelings . In: Ders .: Search for meaning in risk. Life in growing rings . 2nd ext. Ed., Verlag Schneider, Baltmannsweiler 2016, ISBN 978-3-8340-1620-1 , pp. 36–37
- The so-called phobias are viewed as the phobic attachment of diffuse and therapeutically informative fear to a symbolically-metaphorically suitable, inner-worldly object: Phobias, by definition, transform fear into fear. This inner-soul trick makes it possible to avoid fear by avoiding the object.
- Siegbert A. Warwitz: The function of fear and fear . In: Ders .: Search for meaning in risk. Life in growing rings . 2nd ext. Ed., Verlag Schneider, Baltmannsweiler 2016, ISBN 978-3-8340-1620-1 , pp. 32–39