Bullet energy
Projectile energy is a term of ballistics and called kinetic energy of the projectile . The bullet generally has the highest energy when it leaves the muzzle .
calculation
The kinetic energy is calculated as , with the projectile mass m _{G} (kg) and the projectile speed v _{G} (m / s). It is given in joules (J). _{}_{}
An old unit is mt (meter · ton) in the sense of (meter · 1000 kp). In Anglo-Saxon countries, the unit foot-pound is used for projectile energy instead of joule .
Muzzle energy
Muzzle energy (also known as muzzle force) describes the kinetic energy of the projectile when it leaves the barrel of a weapon .
Shooting ranges are always approved for weapons with a certain maximum muzzle energy.
Firearms whose projectiles are propelled by cold gases (air pressure and CO _{2} weapons), i.e. without NC or black powder, with a muzzle energy that is less than 7.5 joules can be purchased in Germany from the age of 18.
Impact energy
Impact energy describes the kinetic energy of the projectile when it hits the target. Because of the air resistance , it is less than the muzzle energy. An old term is impact force.
Examples
- The rifle Fortek 2001 verschießt ammunition from Caliber .50 BMG , that is 0.5 inch = 12.7 mm in diameter, and a projectile mass of 42 g with a muzzle velocity of 823 m / s. The muzzle energy is thus 14,224 J. The maximum firing range of 6200 m is achieved with this ammunition at a firing angle of 37 degrees. The projectile hits at a speed of 175 m / s and thus has an impact energy of 643 J.
- The fat Bertha , a large mortar from the First World War , fired HE shells of up to 1200 kg with a maximum muzzle velocity of 435 m / s and thus achieved a muzzle energy of 114 MJ. The shell hit after about 9 km at 310 m / s and thus had an impact energy of 58 MJ. This corresponds to the kinetic energy of a mass of 1200 kg, which falls from a height of 5000 m to the earth without being slowed down by air resistance, or from 4 railway wagons of 50 t each at a speed of 86 km / h or one of these wagons 172 km / h, which it would reach after falling from a height of 120 m.
Table of selected floors
caliber | Mass of the projectile |
Muzzle velocity |
Muzzle energy |
6 mm airsoft ball (6 mm BB) | ~ 0.12 - 0.85 g | ~ 70 - 100 m / s | ~ 0.3 - 4.25 yrs |
4.5 mm diabolo ( air rifle ) | ~ 0.5 g | ~ 90 - 360 m / s | ~ 2 - 50 y |
.22 lfB ( small bore ) | ~ 2.2 - 2.6 g | ~ 300 - 340 m / s | ~ 100 - 250 years |
4.6 × 30mm ( PDW ) | ~ 2.0 - 2.5 g | ~ 725 m / s | ~ 500 - 525 yrs |
5.7 × 28 mm ( PDW ) | ~ 1.8 - 2.1 g | ~ 520 - 760 m / s | ~ 470 - 540 yrs |
9 × 19 mm ( pistol , MP ) | ~ 7.5 g | ~ 350 - 450 m / s | ~ 300 - 550 J. |
.45 ACP ( pistol , MP ) | ~ 12.0 g | ~ 260 m / s | ~ 320 - 600 J. |
7.62 × 39 mm ( middle cartridge , e.g. AK-47 ) | ~ 8.0 - 10.0 g | ~ 610 - 745 m / s | ~ 1,960 - 2,180 years |
5.56 × 45 mm NATO ( assault rifle ) | ~ 3.5 g | ~ 1,000 m / s | ~ 1,200 - 1,900 yrs |
7.62 × 51 mm NATO ( rifle cartridge ) | ~ 9 - 9.6 g | ~ 700 - 900 m / s | ~ 2,700 - 3,580 years |
12.7 × 99 mm NATO ( heavy machine gun ) | ~ 46.0 g | ~ 800 m / s | ~ 15,000 yrs |
23 × 115 mm ( machine gun ) | ~ 175 - 200 g | ~ 690 - 740 m / s | ~ 46,700 yrs |
30 × 165 mm ( machine gun ) | ~ 400 g | ~ 980 m / s | ~ 190,000 yrs |
250 mm (10 ″) ball bomb in large fireworks | ~ 4,500 g | ~ 110 m / s | ~ 55,000 yrs |
120 × 530 mm ( DM 53 ) ( Leopard 2 tank ) | ~ 5,000 g | ~ 1,750 m / s | ~ 7,650,000 yrs |
Individual evidence
- ^ The ammunition of the German 120 mm tank cannon from Rheinmetall. Stefan Kotsch, accessed April 17, 2009 . (Weight of penetrator )
- ↑ Paul-Werner Krapke: Leopard 2 - his becoming and his performance . BoD - Books on Demand, 2004, ISBN 3-8334-1425-1 , pp. 8 ( limited preview in Google Book Search [accessed April 17, 2009]).