Gingival hyperplasia

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Classification according to ICD-10
K06.1 Gingival hyperplasia
ICD-10 online (WHO version 2019)

A gingival hyperplasia (from the Latin. Gingiva " gum " and neulateinisch hyperplasia "excessive cell formation," even gingival hypertrophy ) is a gum overgrowth . The term is imprecise because the term hyperplasia refers to an increased number of cells and hypertrophy to an increase in the size of individual cells. Both can only be determined histologically .

Gingival hyperplasia


Gingival hyperplasia occurs either idiopathically (i.e. without an identifiable cause), hereditary (hereditary), for example in infantile systemic hyalinosis or Rutherfurd's syndrome , as a side effect of some drugs, as a result of deficiency symptoms ( scurvy ) or due to hormonal changes during pregnancy Pregnancy gingivitis . Another form is gingival hyperplasia in special forms of acute leukemia. The most common form is drug-induced.

Medications that can cause gum growth include: Cyclosporin A , valproate , diltiazem , phenytoin , nifedipine, and other calcium channel blockers . Cyclosporin A, phenytoin and nifedipine in particular have a specific affinity for the subepithelial gingivial connective tissue cells and can trigger cell proliferation there.

Clinical appearance

The strength of the expression is different. It can occur on the entire gum or locally in the area of ​​individual teeth. Often the interdental papillae are initially affected and bleeding symptoms of some or all of the papillae can be observed. Estrogen or progestin- induced gum growths, for example, are usually more pronounced than those caused by phenytoin.

Therapy, course & prognosis

Idiopathic gingival hyperplasia is slow. It can already be observed in children and in mixed dentition, which can lead to problems with tooth eruption . If left untreated, the growths can cover the crown of the tooth , which can only be treated with a gingivectomy (surgical removal of the gums) with subsequent gingivoplasty.

The drug-related hyperplasia, which is also slowly progressing, usually resolves on its own after discontinuation of the corresponding drug, which in the case of phenytoin can take up to a year. Stopping the drug is usually not indicated. In rare cases, surgical removal of the excess tissue is necessary. A tartar and plaque removal performed by a dentist can significantly reduce the hyperplasia.

All forms of gingival hyperplasia are aggravated by poor dental hygiene . Particularly in idiopathic gingival hyperplasia, increased dental hygiene is therefore necessary, as this greatly slows down the hyperplasia. The prognosis is favorable.

Occurs in dogs

Gingival hyperplasia in a 9 year old dog .

Gingival hyperplasia often occurs in German boxers and English springer spaniels .

See also


  • Klaus H. Rateitschak, Edith M. Rateitschak-Plüss, Herbert F. Wolf: Color Atlases of Dentistry, Volume 1, Periodontology . Edition: 3rd, completely revised and expanded. Georg Thieme Verlag , 2003, ISBN 3-13-655603-8 . .
  • Konrad Bork, Walter Burgdorf, Nikolaus Hoede: Oral mucosa and lip diseases . 3. Edition. Schattauer, 2003, ISBN 978-3-7945-2486-0 .
  • Norbert Schwenzer, Michael Ehrenfeld a. a .: Dental surgery, Volume 3: Tooth-mouth-jaw medicine . 3. Edition. Georg Thieme Verlag , 2000, ISBN 978-3-13-116963-1 .

Individual evidence

  1. Rateischak, Rateischak-Plüss, Wolf: Paradontologie , p. 126
  2. Gerd Herold and colleagues: "Internal Medicine 2016" p. 98
  3. a b Schwenzer, Ehrenfeld: Zahn-Or-Kiefer-Heilkunde , S. 180f
  4. a b Bork, Burgdorf, Hoede: Oral mucous membrane and lip diseases , p. 229
  5. Rateischak, Rateischak-Plüss, Wolf: Paradontologie , p. 371
  6. Gingival Fibroma and Epulides . In: The Merck Veterinary Manual . 2006. Retrieved July 15, 2014.
  7. Cecilia Gorrel: Periodontal Disease . In: Proceedings of the 28th World Congress of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association . 2003. Retrieved July 15, 2014.