Haptic illusion

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A haptic illusion is a perception illusion of the sense of touch . Some haptic illusions require an active touch (movement of fingers or hand), while others are passive (external stimulation that presses against the skin). In the last few years the interest among researchers of perception has increased, which led to the discovery of new haptic illusions and their publication in popular media. Haptic illusions can be analog, visual, or auditory, suggesting that the various sensory organs process information in a similar way.

Well-known haptic illusions are:


There are many different examples of haptic illusions, the following being known:

Passive haptic illusions

  • One of the best-known passive haptic illusions is the Cutaneous Rabbit Illusion in which a series of touches occurs on two different places on the skin, which leads to the fact that the person perceives further touches in the space, although there was no contact at all.
  • The tau effect describes the phenomenon that shows that if two identical touches are made on the skin, an inequality can be perceived, which is related to the time interval between the touches. Smaller distances between the two touches mean that the touches are felt closer to each other. The phenomenon also takes place visually and audibly .
  • The kappa effect describes the phenomenon which shows that if the skin is touched at regular intervals, the person still has the feeling that the intervals are irregular. A greater spatial distance increases this phenomenon. This phenomenon also takes place visually and audibly.
  • When a person keeps their eyes closed and sticks out their arms, then moves someone from the shoulder to their finger towards the elbow, many cannot tell when the finger will reach the elbow.

Tactile haptic illusions

  • If one hand is placed in cold water, the other in warm water for about a minute, and then both hands are placed in lukewarm water, it will feel hot to the hand that was in the cold water and cold to the hand that was in the hot water lay.
  • If one person lies on their stomach with their arms stretched forward and another person raises their arms about three feet above the floor and holds them for a minute while the person on the floor closes their eyes and hangs their head, then moving the arms slowly towards the floor, he gets the feeling that the arms are below the level of the rest of the body.

Further examples

  • When, while eating, a person holds food with one texture and has food with a different texture in their mouth, most people feel the freshness and firmness through both.
  • If a person has been out at sea for a long time, the movement of the waves may still be heard.
  • If a person wears a hat for a long time, the feeling of the hat can still be felt after taking it off.

See also

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Graham Lawton: Seven ways to fool your sense of touch. Retrieved June 3, 2020 (American English).
  2. ^ Frank A. Geldard, Carl E. Sherrick: The Cutaneous "Rabbit": A Perceptual Illusion . In: Science . tape 178 , no. 4057 , October 13, 1972, ISSN  0036-8075 , p. 178–179 , doi : 10.1126 / science.178.4057.178 , PMID 5076909 ( sciencemag.org [accessed June 3, 2020]).
  3. ^ Daniel Goldreich, Jonathan Tong: Prediction, Postdiction, and Perceptual Length Contraction: A Bayesian Low-Speed ​​Prior Captures the Cutaneous Rabbit and Related Illusions . In: Frontiers in Psychology . tape 4 , 2013, ISSN  1664-1078 , doi : 10.3389 / fpsyg.2013.00221 , PMID 23675360 , PMC 3650428 (free full text).
  4. ^ Jonathan Tong, Vy Ngo, Daniel Goldreich: Tactile length contraction as Bayesian inference . In: Journal of Neurophysiology . tape 116 , no. 2 , April 27, 2016, ISSN  0022-3077 , p. 369–379 , doi : 10.1152 / jn.00029.2016 , PMID 27121574 , PMC 4969385 (free full text).
  5. J. Christopher Bill, Leon W. Teft: Space-time relations: The effects of variations in stimulus and interstimulus interval duration on perceived visual extent . In: Acta Psychologica . tape 36 , no. 5 , November 1, 1972, ISSN  0001-6918 , pp. 358-369 , doi : 10.1016 / 0001-6918 (72) 90032-7 .
  6. ^ Jean-Christophe Sarrazin, Marie-Dominique Giraudo, John Bruce Pittenger: Tau and Kappa effects in physical space: the case of audition . In: Psychological Research . tape 71 , no. 2 , March 1, 2007, ISSN  1430-2772 , p. 201-218 , doi : 10.1007 / s00426-005-0019-1 .
  7. Youguo Chen, Bangwu Zhang, Konrad Paul Kording: Speed ​​Constancy or Only Slowness: What Drives the Kappa Effect . In: PLOS ONE . tape 11 , no. 4 , April 21, 2016, ISSN  1932-6203 , p. e0154013 , doi : 10.1371 / journal.pone.0154013 , PMID 27100097 , PMC 4839579 (free full text) - ( plos.org [accessed June 3, 2020]).
  8. Tsuyoshi Kuroda, Simon Grondin, Makoto Miyazaki, Katsuya Ogata, Shozo Tobimatsu: The Kappa Effect With Only Two Visual Markers . In: Multisensory Research . tape 29 , no. 8 , January 1, 2016, ISSN  2213-4808 , p. 703-725 , doi : 10.1163 / 22134808-00002533 .
  9. ^ Jean-Christophe Sarrazin, Marie-Dominique Giraudo, John Bruce Pittenger: Tau and Kappa effects in physical space: the case of audition . In: Psychological Research . tape 71 , no. 2 , March 1, 2007, ISSN  1430-2772 , p. 201-218 , doi : 10.1007 / s00426-005-0019-1 .
  10. ^ Peter Brugger, Rebekka Meier: A New Illusion at Your Elbow . In: Perception . tape 44 , no. 2 , January 2015, ISSN  0301-0066 , p. 219-221 , doi : 10.1068 / p7910 .