If two rigid bodies with a curved surface ( cylinders or balls ) are pressed against each other, then in this idealized case they only touch each other in a linear or point-like manner. In the elastic body, however, the elasticity at the point of contact creates a flattening and a contact surface and a characteristic stress distribution ( surface pressure ) on the contact surface in both bodies .
According to Hertz, the size and shape of the contact area as well as the level and distribution of the mechanical stresses under the contact area can be calculated. The level of Hertzian pressure depends on the force with which the two bodies are pressed against one another, on their radii of curvature , their modulus of elasticity and the Poisson's ratio of their materials.
Shape of the contact surfaces:
- If two spheres , a sphere and a plane or two crossed cylinders touch each other , a contact ellipse is created .
- When two parallel cylinders or a cylinder touch a plane, a rectangular, elongated contact surface is created; one also speaks here of roller pressing.
Requirements for the calculation of the surface pressure according to the Hertz equations are
- linear-elastic , homogeneous and isotropic materials
- Contact surface flat and small (compared to the dimensions of the body)
- Friction-free , no shear stresses in the contact area
- the body can be used as elastic half spaces are considered
The Hertzian pressure on contact with curved surfaces is calculated accordingly
- - Hertz coefficients for touching curved surfaces
- - strength between the bodies
- - Curvature = reciprocal of the radius
- - Poisson's number (also: Poisson's ratio) body 1, body 2
- - E-modulus of the materials body 1, body 2.
Point contact ball - ball
For the simple case of contact between sphere and sphere:
- with - sphere radii sphere 1, sphere 2
- Sphere - hollow sphere: If the larger sphere encloses the smaller one, a negative is used.
- Sphere - plane: and with it
Line contact cylinder - cylinder
For the simple case of contact between cylinder and cylinder (or plane), the following applies:
- - Length of contact of the cylinders.