Kusanku ( Ryukyu クーサンクー for Chinese 公相君 , Pinyin Gōngxiāngjūn also Kwang Shang Fu , Jap. Kōshōkun or Kosokun ), also Kushanku , was the name of the martial arts expert, who from 1756 to 1762 as an envoy of the Chinese Qing -Kaisers Qianlong to Okinawa (Naha ) came.
China and Okinawa were in close trade relations at this time, so that the emperor sent various families of craftsmen from Fujian to Okinawa. Kushanku's disciples were Chatan Yara (Kitayara) and the Tōde master Sakugawa . He taught both of them a kata that would later bear his name. Since both students had different conceptions and interpretations of the kata, different versions of the kūsankū developed over time.
Sakugawa no Kūsankū
The direct origin was the kūsankū. The many subtle attacks on vital points had to give way to sober techniques. He taught this kata to his three students and in old age he taught it to Matsumura Sōkon . He also taught them Asato Anko and Itosu Anko . She then experienced the first serious change through Itosu.
Itosu no Kūsankū
Itosu changed many katas or made several kata out of one. From the original kūsankū he developed three other forms of this kata:
Chatanyara no Kūsankū
There are various statements about the origin of Chatan Yara . He was probably born in Chatan, as his name suggests. What is certain is that he had a high level of education, which enabled him to have close contact with Kūsankū. Some sources also state that Chatan Yara learned the Chinese language through extended stays in mainland China, where he was also taught martial arts. This educational background makes it clear why he understood much better the subtle techniques that Sakugawa changed from lack of understanding and individual interpretation. He left the kata unchanged and taught it to his student Chōtoku Kyan .
Kuniyoshi no Kūsankū
This kata is the largely unchanged variant of Chatan Yara, which he imparted to his student Chōtoku Kyan. Chōtoku Kyan is also considered to be the link between two Uchi-deshi (student of the inner teaching) lines.
One line: Kūsankū, teacher of Chatan Yara, who in turn was the teacher of Chōtoku Kyan, who thus learned the original Kata Kūsankū. It is practiced today in Matsubayashi-ryu .
The second line: Shionja, teacher of Oyadomori, through whom Chōtoku Kyan learned the Chinese version of the Passai (Bassai) and thus got it into the Tomarite style.
Chibana no Kūsankū
This version is practiced today exclusively in Kobayashi-ryū and Shudokan / Doshinkan. Chōsin Chibana was the origin of this kata, which is close to Itosu. She also learned Chibana from Itosu, but concentrated more on the Kūsankū Sho. The only current teacher is Yūchoku Higa.
In the 1930s, Gichin Funakoshi changed the name Kūsankū to Kankū. Kankū ( Japanese 観 空 ) means translated "to look at the sky". It was Funakoshi and Kenwa Mabuni who spread them in Shōtōkan - and Shitō style. In the Shōtōkan style, two variants of the Kankū are practiced: The Kankū Dai and the Kankū Shō . The suffix dai means "large" while shō means "small".
For Funakoshi, the Kankū Dai was the universal Kata of the Shōtōkan, which combined all the elements. Many of the sequences that are practiced in the Heian-Katas can be found in the Kankū Dai.
- Werner Lind : The classic kata. Spiritual origin and practice of traditional karate. OW Barth Verlag, 1995. ISBN 978-3-502-64403-3
- Roland Habersetzer : Koshiki Kata Palisander Verlag 2005. ISBN 3-938305-01-0
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||公 相 君; Kwang Shang Fu (Chinese); Kōshōkun (Japanese); Kōsōkun (Japanese)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Martial arts expert|
|DATE OF BIRTH||18th century|
|DATE OF DEATH||after 1761|