Constriction as a scientific term goes back to the Latin verb: cōn-stringere (German: ' tie together', English: constriction ) and means ' tie together '.
- In biology , the catching method of strangler snakes is called constriction in scientific usage ; The name of the boa constrictor also indicates this behavior. The constrictive locomotion of some snake species is a contraction of the body in the longitudinal direction, comparable to an accordion.
- In medical parlance, constriction is understood as the physiological or pathological narrowing of hollow organs such. B. the contraction of a blood vessel ( vasoconstriction ), the bronchial system ( bronchoconstriction ) or another hollow organ (see also: stricture ). The similar term ' contraction ' (' contraction '), e.g. B. from muscle tissue ( muscle contraction ), cytoskeleton - filaments , microtubules , motor proteins , or in mitosis is accompanied by a shortening of one ( molecular weight , microscopic or macroscopic ) contractile structure associated and should be distinguished from the term, constriction '; synonymous usage is therefore usually wrong.
- In psychology denotes constriction a symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) . It describes avoiding situations that are perceived as threatening, social withdrawal, and psychological numbness and emotional numbness or emotional anesthesia ("emotional or psychological contraction"). The person concerned has no way of coping with a situation (neither fleeing nor fighting) and, according to the 3F model ( fight, flight or freeze model ) adopted from biology in psychotraumatology, gets into a shock-like state of 'reimbursement' (' dead reflex '). He is in traumatic forceps ,a term used in psychotraumatology ( Michaela Huber , 2003), which was expanded there to: fight, flight or freeze and fragment , whereby the during the 'Freeze - state 'triggered dissociation , splitting off and fragmentation of the traumatic memory contents (a process that wasdiscovered and describedas a trauma consequenceby Pierre Janet in 1889) is expressed.
- emotional numbness , symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder , characterized by emotional freezing and withdrawal
- ↑ Walther Graumann, Dieter Sasse: Compact textbook of the entire anatomy - sensory systems, skin, CNS, peripheral pathways . Schattauer Verlag, 2004, ISBN 3-7945-2064-5 .
- ↑ Stefan Binder, Andy Lamp: Boa constrictor: The idol snake. Verlag Natur und Tier, Münster 2007, ISBN 3-931587-91-6 , pp. 59–60.
- ↑ a b constriction . DocCheck Flexikon
- ↑ a b contraction . DocCheck Flexikon
- ↑ a b c Kasia Kozlowska, Peter Walker, Loyola McLean, Pascal Carrive: Fear and the Defense Cascade: Clinical Implications and Management . In: Harvard Review of Psychiatry , July / August 2015, Volume 23, Issue 4, pp. 263–287, doi: 10.1097 / HRP.0000000000000065
- ↑ Amy FT Arnsten: Stress signaling pathways that impair prefrontal cortex structure and function . In: Nat. Rev. Neurosci. , 2009 Jun, 10 (6), pp. 410-422, doi: 10.1038 / nrn2648 , PMC 2907136 (free full text).
- ↑ James W. Hopper: Why many rape victims don't fight or yell . (PDF; 125 kB; 3 pages) The Washington Post , June 23, 2018.
- ↑ a b Michaela Huber: Trauma and the consequences. Trauma and Trauma Treatment, Part 1. 5th Edition. Volume 1. Junfermann, Paderborn 2012 (1st edition 2003), ISBN 3-87387-510-1 .
- ↑ a b Corinna Scherwath, Sibylle Friedrich: Social and educational work in traumatization. Ernst Reinhardt Verlag, Munich 2012, ISBN 3-497-02321-3 ; Traumatic forceps p. 19 ff., Excerpt from the publisher p. 17–23. (PDF; 175 kB; 7 pages)
- ↑ a b Alexander Korittko: Post-traumatic stress disorders in children and adolescents. Series "Treating disorders systemically", Volume 5. Carl-Auer Verlag, Heidelberg 2016, ISBN 978-3-8497-0114-7 , p. 27, excerpt from the publisher. (PDF; 1.6 MB; 16 pages)
- ↑ Kathy Steele, Suzette Boon, Onno van der Hart: The treatment of trauma-based dissociation: A practice-oriented, integrative approach . GP Probst Verlag, 2017, ISBN 978-3-944476-22-3 .