Leashes usually consist of leather straps and buckles (sometimes loops). They are usually 2.0 to 2.4 cm ( 1.8 cm in tournament sports ) wide and made from high-quality hide leather . There are different line systems, the Achenbach line is widespread .
Achenbach line or cross line
The Achenbach leash was developed by Benno von Achenbach and is part of the Achenbach driving system. The Achenbach system is taught in German driving. The Achenbach leash is also called leash 22 because there are 11 holes on each buckle, making a total of 22 holes. It also consists of the following 22 identifiable individual parts: buckle piece, middle piece with 22 elongated oval holes and hand piece (outer line). Buckle piece and middle piece (inner line) = 5 parts × 2 lines = 10 parts, 4 bit buckles, 2 cross loops, 2 cross buckles, 2 line protectors and finally buckle and cord on the hand pieces = 22 nameable parts. Achenbach himself called his lines "cross lines".
With cross lines, the two left lines of a pair of horses are strapped together. The same is done with the two right lines. Instead of the original four lines, only one pair of lines has to be carried in hand. The leashes of a horse pair can be strapped in different lengths. This allows differences in temperament and physique to be balanced out.
Plucks or push reins
The pluckers, or push reins in Bavaria, are primarily used at work, i.e. when moving wood or plowing . With a plucked line, both lines that come from the bit are strapped together at the level of the withers , so that only one line is in the hand and one hand remains free for work. The direction is indicated by tuning aids, the Fuhrkommandos .