Guided missile

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As a guided missile ( LFK ) are in defense technology and military parlance, unlike ballistic or unguided rockets called, weapons with its own drive, which are automatically during the flight or directed by the shooter controlled the finish. The physical rocket propulsion system , on the other hand, is not a mandatory feature; there are also missiles with external air-dependent engines . They are mainly used against moving ground, sea and air targets.


Fieseler Fi 103 cruise missile

The history of guided missiles began with the launch of the Fieseler Fi 103 on Usedom . The Fieseler Fi 103 (V1) was the world's first military cruise missile.


Depending on the type of target and the delivery system, a distinction is made between:

Certain types of guided missiles (anti-tank guided missiles, portable anti-aircraft missiles ) can also be transported and used by individual soldiers without a carrier system.

The following functional principles are distinguished according to the type of fire control and target control:

  • Independently target-seeking rockets ( Fire-and-Forget ) are able to track a target object using built-in sensors. Optical, infrared or radar systems are used for this, depending on the range .
  • Remote-controlled guided missiles are guided to the target by the shooter via a wire, radio or laser link or with the help of retransmitted video images .
  • In semi-automatic systems, target control is supported by the shooter using methods such as laser target marking or guide beams.

Since the homing devices built into the missile do not reach as far as the on-board radar of the carrier system or a battlefield radar, combined systems are also used. The missile is initially only steered in the approximate direction of the target object. During the approach phase, information is exchanged between the missile and the controlling system. The final target programming can then take place after target acquisition by the built-in system.

For example, course gyro , satellite navigation and terrain imaging are used for navigation . The range of guided missiles is in the range from a few kilometers to several hundred kilometers. Ground target missiles with extremely long ranges of up to a few thousand kilometers are also known as cruise missiles .

In addition to unguided ammunition, glide bombs are also used as drop armament for combat aircraft . These do not have their own drive, but reach similar ranges as ground target missiles and are controlled like them.

See also

Web links

Commons : Missile  album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Academic: guided missile. Retrieved December 7, 2012 .