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The term Majus ( Arabic مجوس, DMG Maǧūs ) originally referred to followers of Zoroastrianism , especially priests or skinny or "magicians". But it also included the other Iranian religions. The word appears with this meaning in the Quran in sura 22:17 .

In a figurative sense, the pagan population of Muslim Spain was also called Majus. This extended word usage is synonymous with the Latin paganus ( pagan ). In texts by Arab historians and geographers from the Maghreb and Muslim Spain, the Vikings , who raided the local coasts several times, were also referred to as Majus.

In Iraqi propaganda literature of the 1980s, the use of the term Majūs for polemical purposes was intended to denigrate Iranians as spurious Muslims.


Individual evidence

  1. Morony, lc and VF Büchner, sv, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam , 1. A., Vol. 3, 101-105; Curtis, Vesta Sarkhosh / Stewart, Sarah (eds.): Birth of the Persian Empire : The Idea of ​​Iran, Volume I. London: IB Tauris 1995, ISBN 1845110625 , p. 92.
  2. Steingass, Francis Joseph: Art. "Majūs", in: A Comprehensive Persian-English dictionary, including the Arabic words and phrases to be met with in Persian literature. London: Routledge & K. Paul 1892, p. 1179.
  3. Cyril Glassé, Huston Smith: The new encyclopedia of Islam , Rowman Altamira 2003, ISBN 0759101906 , 138th
  4. S. Mikel De Epalza: Mozarabs , in: Salma Khadra Jayyusi (Ed.): The legacy of Muslim Spain. Handbook of Oriental Studies, Dept. 1. The Near and Middle East. 2 volumes. Leiden, Brill 1992, ISBN 90-04-09952-2 / ISBN 90-04-09953-0 , pp. 149-170, here 153ff
  5. ^ Glossarium latino-arabicum, p. 361 of the edition by Seybold 1900 ; see. Thomas E. Burman: Religious polemic and the intellectual history of the Mozarabs, c.1050-1200 , Leiden: Brill 1994, ISBN 9004099107 , 73.
  6. Melvinger, lc; Évariste Lévi-Provençal : Histoire de l'Espagne musulmane , first 1932, reprint Maisonneuve & Larose 1999, ISBN 2706813865 , 204 speaks of a "nom générique", which generally refers to "Idolâtres" and "adorateurs du feu" (idolaters or followers a fire cult).
  7. Al-Marashi, Ibrahim: The Mindset of Iraq's Security Apparatus ( Memento of the original from April 11, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Cambridge University: Center of International Studies 2000, p. 5. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /