Mushroom bodies

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Drosophila melanogaster brain expression patterns.jpg

The mushroom body ( Corpora pedunculata , English Mushroom body ) is a conspicuous, paired anatomical structure that occurs in the central brain ( upper pharyngeal ganglion: Protocerebrum ) of the arthropods and some annelids .

It serves as an olfactory center (2nd order olfactory center ), but also plays an important role in higher integrative services such as learning and memory and is one of the interconnection centers (glomeruli) of the protocerebrum.


The mushroom body is divided into a calyx (cup), a pedunculus (stem) and several lobes. The calyx is innervated by the dendrites of numerous intrinsic neurons , traditionally known as Kenyon or globuli cells (50,000 in the migratory locust , 2,000 in the Drosophila fruit fly ). Their comparatively tiny cell bodies are always in the periphery of the brain. The axons of the Kenyon cells, which are initially arranged in parallel, pull bundled as a pedunculus into the interior of the brain, where they branch out terminally and thus form the individual praises. The number of lobes differs depending on the species - for example, the mushroom bodies of Drosophila have three pairs of lobes (alpha-, beta, gamma lobus) and those of the horseshoe shrimp Hutchinsoniella have a total of 19 lobes (eight pairs and three unpaired). While the two mushroom bodies of most insects are separated in pairs, the mushroom bodies of horseshoe shrimp, double- tailed prawns , millipedes , jaw-claw-bearers, and penny-pods, as well as many annelids, are connected in the middle.


In Drosophila , the fungal body on each side of the body has been shown to develop from four neuroblasts , each producing an identical set of Kenyon cells. The complex mushroom bodies of Hutchinsoniella develop - like the rest of the olfactory system - extremely early and are already fully functional by the time they hatch.


Due to the detailed structural homology of the individual components of the mushroom body and its matching olfactory function within the arthropods, it is now assumed that the marine ancestor of all Arthropoda in the Cambrian already had a pair of centrally connected mushroom bodies, i.e. H. had a well-equipped olfactory system. Although most crustaceans lack mushroom bodies, the more simply built olfactory centers of the higher crustaceans and Remipedia can be derived from the mushroom bodies of this original arthropod. The close relationship of the Arthropoda and Annelida ( Articulata hypothesis ) was previously supported by, among other things, the similarities of the fungal body of the two groups, but is now considered unlikely in view of the wealth of molecular data.


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  9. ^ Text on the development of the mushroom bodies on .
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