Upper pharyngeal ganglion

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Schematic structure of a typical rope ladder nervous system

The supraesophageal ganglion (Supraösophagealganglion) is at arthropods such as insects , crustaceans , arachnids , and other animals with a ventral nerve cord (z. B. tardigrades and earthworms ) is the largest nerve ganglia ( ganglion ) of the central nervous system ( CNS ). Its function corresponds roughly to the brain in vertebrates and cephalopods and is located in the head (deutocephalon) or in spiders andScorpions in the head chest above the esophagus (i.e., supraesophageal). It is connected to the subesophageal ganglion (subesophageal ganglion) by two nerve cords (pharyngeal connective).

Insect nervous system
( A termite , B swimming beetle , C fly )
1  upper  pharyngeal ganglion
2  sub pharyngeal ganglion
3 other nerve nodes


Front view of the brain of a migratory locust with 3 ocelli (see oc. And oc.n.)

The upper throat ganglion consists of a large protocerebrum as the foremost part and the following deutocerebrum and tritocerebrum . Depending on the genus, these three parts can be more or less pronounced, reduced or grown together.

Scheme drawing of the anatomy of an insect with upper pharyngeal ganglion (5), sub pharyngeal ganglion (31)
  • The protocerebrum is connected to the eyes ( compound eyes and ocelli ). The optical lobe ( lobus opticus , English optic lobe ) as the visual center of the brain is directly connected to the eyes. The protocerebrum includes the fungal bodies ( e.g. for olfactory perception ) as further interconnection centers ( glomeruli ) as well as the protocerebral bridge ( pons protocerebralis ), the central body ( corpus centrale , English central body ) and the ventral bodies.
  • The Deutocerebrum processes the sensory information from the antennae . It consists of two parts, the sensor lobe ( English antennal lobe ) and the Dorsal overlap ( English dorsal lobe ). The dorsal flap also contains motor neurons that control muscles sensor. Chelicerata have a very reduced or absent deutocerebrum because of their lack of antennae.
  • The tritocerebrum integrates sensory inputs from the two preceding pairs of ganglia. The lobes of the tritocerebrum split to bypass the esophagus and begin the subesophageal ganglion. The tritocerebrum may be partially fused with the sub-canal ganglion.

See also


Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ A b c John R. Meyer: The Nervous System . In: General Entomology course at North Carolina State University . Department of Entomology NC State University. Retrieved March 23, 2020.
  2. Protozerebrum on: Spektrum.de, Encyclopedia of Neuroscience
  3. Oberschlundganglion , on: Spektrum.de, Lexikon der Biologie
  4. a b U Homberg, TA Christensen, JG Hildebrand: Structure and Function of the Deutocerebrum in Insects . In: Annual Review of Entomology . 34, 1989, pp. 477-501. doi : 10.1146 / annurev.en.34.010189.002401 . PMID 2648971 .
  5. Deutocerebrum . Flybrain. (on arizona.edu)
  6. Deutocerebrum . Invertebrate Brain Platform, Japan.
  7. Uwe Homberg, Thomas A. Christensen, John G. Hildebrand: Structure and Function of the Deutocerebrum in Insects , in: Ann. Rev. Entomol. 34, 1989. pp. 477-501, PDF , doi: 10.1146 / annurev.en.34.010189.002401