Post production (film)
The post-production or post-production ( English post production ) designated in the phase division of a film production , the fourth, nachbereitende phase. This includes, above all, the editing and digital post-processing of the images in the computer as well as the dubbing and background of the images with music. The post production workflows differ considerably in some cases; depending on which material was shot, how large the proportion of computer-generated effects and images is (“ visual effects ” and “ computer-generated imagery ”) and which end product is to be produced.
Post-production steps in the present
A network of all the major Hollywood studios that dominate the world market for cinema films is vigorously digitizing the entire film production, from production, post-production, distribution and screening. Nonetheless, feature films around the world are still shot on 35mm film material and shown in cinemas with mechanical projectors. The work steps in post-production, on the other hand, are now largely incorporeally digital.
Post-production with 35mm film typically begins with film development of the exposed material. The entire developed film original is digitized on a film scanner ("Onelight Telecine") and the data is loaded onto hard drives together with the original audio data that has already been recorded digitally, in order to be edited there with the help of a digital editing system, such as Avid .
After completion of the cut ("picture lock"), the color correction ("color determination") and telecine take place : a colorist digitizes again on a film scanner those parts of the negative that appear in the cut version ("selected takes telecine") and gives the "film "Thereby its so-called" look ". Depending on the concept of the film, the color-determined image data are processed using visual effects and the opening and closing credits are added.
The final image is exposed on 35 mm film. From this, in turn, supplemented by the optical soundtrack, a zero copy is made , the first positive film that is ready for screening. After a test demonstration of the zero copy and, if necessary, color corrections in the development process, you finally have a master from which copies can be made and shown in the cinemas.
If the film is shot with digital cameras, there is no need for film development and scanning. If you project with a digital projector, there is no need to expose and, above all, to make expensive copies. When producing for television, the end product is typically a video tape that the broadcaster uses as a master.
Audio post-production steps
- Editing of the original sounds and atmos
- Synchronous recording ( ADR )
- Recording and editing of sounds
- Sound design : Adding the foley as well as the creation of synthetic noises, creating background noises ( Atmos ) and sound effects in general
- Composition, recording, editing and adding the soundtrack
- Sound mixing
- Post production supervisor
- Film editor
- Sound designer
- VFX Artist
- Media designer for picture and sound
- Light determiners
- Film developer
- Laboratory assistant in sensitometry
In order to do justice to the increasing digitization in the media production process, the multi-year training course to become a media designer in the fields of digital and print as well as image and sound was created. Bachelor courses in media technology or media production have been developed at several universities of applied sciences. There are also training courses at film and television academies such as the Bavarian Television Academy . The Munich Academy of Journalists offers six months of advanced training and a nine-month extra-occupational course on digital media production .
There are companies that specialize in the post-production of films, mostly including film copying . In Austria there are two large companies in this regard, Listo Videofilm and Synchro Film . In Germany there are companies like the traditional Munich company ARRI or CinePostproduction . In Switzerland these are Schwarz-Film, Egli-Film, On Line Video 46 AG, Ultra Images und Filmkunst, in Great Britain Cinelab London. and Lions Gate Studios in Canada.
- Oliver Langewitz: Compendium of digital post-production. The guide through the world of film and video post-production with an overview of software - hardware - accessories and the working methods of users . mediabook Verlag, Gau-Heppenheim 2003, ISBN 3-932972-19-8 .
- Joachim Polzer (Hrsg.): Weltwunder der Cinematographie - Contributions to a cultural history of film technology. Volume 8/2006 - On the history of the film copy - A Short History of Cinema Film Post-Production. Polzer Media Group, Potsdam 2006m ISBN 3-934535-26-7 .
- Joachim Polzer (Hrsg.), Eberhard Nuffer (Author): Weltwunder der Cinematographie. Volume 7/2003 - Contributions to a cultural history of film technology. Film editing and editing table. A journey through time through classic assembly technology. Polzer Media Group, Potsdam 2003, ISBN 3-934535-24-0 .
- Joachim Polzer (Hrsg.): Weltwunder der Cinematographie - Contributions to a cultural history of film technology. Volume 6/2002 - The rise and fall of the sound film. The future of cinema. Polzer Media Group, Potsdam 2002, ISBN 3-934535-20-8 .
- Arne Möller : The post-production of a television film. Praxis Film, Volume 82. UVK Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 09-2013, ISBN 978-3-86764-411-2 .