Proton (chemistry)

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A proton (also hydrogen nucleus , according to the official nomenclature of the IUPAC : Hydron ) is in the Chemistry a positively charged ion ( cation ) H + of hydrogen , irrespective of the core composition . A proton in the chemical sense can therefore be a proton (in the physical sense) 1 H + , Deuteron 2 H + or Triton 3 H + , so it can contain one or two neutrons in addition to the actual proton . The proton plays a major role in Brønsted and Lowry's concept of acid .

By releasing an electron , only the nucleus would theoretically remain of a hydrogen atom that has only one electron . Such a formation of free atomic nuclei is not possible chemically. There must always be a molecule available to take over the proton.

In the case of a Brønsted acid in an aqueous solution , a water molecule (H 2 O) actually reacts with an acid molecule , the proton donor : the water molecule, as a proton acceptor, takes over the proton of the acid by making one of its lone pairs of electrons available to bind the proton . As a result, the oxonium ion H 3 O + or H 9 O 4 + is always formed in aqueous solutions , which is often simplified to the proton H + in reaction equations . The molar concentration of H 3 O + ions gives the pH of a solution.

Individual evidence

  1. Patent DE69622488T2 : Hydrogen core storage method . Published on September 26, 1995 , inventor: Toichi Chikuma.
  2. JF Bunnet, RAY Jones: Names for hydrogen atom, ions, and groups, and for reactions Involving them (Recommendations 1988) . In: Pure Appl. Chem. . 60, No. 7, 1968, pp. 1115-6. doi : 10.1351 / pac198860071115 .