Puppet whelk

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Puppet whelk
Whole grain snail (Granopupa granum)

Whole grain snail ( Granopupa granum )

Subordination : Land snails (Stylommatophora)
Superfamily : Pupilloidea
Family : Corn snails (Chondrinidae)
Subfamily : Chondrininae
Genre : Granopupa
Type : Puppet whelk
Scientific name of the  genus
Boettger , 1889
Scientific name of the  species
Granopupa granum
( Draparnaud , 1801)

The pupa grain snail ( Granopupa granum ) is a species of the grain snail (Chondrinidae) from the suborder of the land pulmonary snail (Stylommatophora). It is the type species of the monotypical genus Granopupa O. Boettger, 1889. The pupa grain snail has a huge distribution area that extends from the Canary Islands in the west to Afghanistan in the east.


The shell of the pupa snail is 3.5 to 5.5 mm high and 1.4 to 1.8 mm wide. It has 6 to 8 turns, of which the first three to four turns are strongly curved; the following turns are less curved. The last two to three turns are also slightly flattened on the periphery and do not increase in diameter, or only slightly. The case is horn-colored to slightly reddish-brown and is hardly translucent. The surface is more or less regularly covered with tightly spaced fine to coarse ribs. The edge of the mouth is only slightly bent and hardly thickened. The outer lip is interrupted in the parietal region. The mouth edges are parietally connected by a weak, often barely visible callus. The mouth is reinforced with up to seven "teeth" or lamellae: a high parietal lamella, a weak, often missing angular cusp, a weak spiral lamella, an (upper) spindle lamella, which is often more strongly developed than the lower spindle lamella, a lower palatal lamella that is higher and longer than the upper palatal lamella, a suprapalatal lamella and a small infrapalatal lamella, which may also be absent. They stand deep in the mouth and are not connected to the outer lip.

In the male genital tract, the penis has an epiphallus that takes up about half the length of the penis. The penis / epiphallus transition is clearly marked by a kink. A blind sac (caecum or flagellum) is not formed. A penile retractor muscle is also missing. The inner wall of the penis tube is provided with wide longitudinal folds (or pilasters). In the female part, the free fallopian tube is very short, the vagina is only moderately long (shorter than the length of the penis). The seminal vesicle (spermathec) does not reach the albumin gland, the long stalk is embedded in the upper part of the prostate gland. A semi-transverse row of the radula has a central tooth and 12 to 16 posterior teeth.

The small soft body (in relation to the case size) is gray or brown in color with lighter sides and a lighter base. The upper tentacles are relatively long, whereas the lower tentacles are very short and conical in shape.

Similar species

The pupa grain snail is the smallest species (and genus) of the grain snail. In the other case features it differs little or no from the other types. However, it can be distinguished from Chondrina and Rupestrella on the basis of anatomical features .

Geographical distribution and habitat

The distribution area of ​​the whorl snail extends from the Canary Islands in the west to Afghanistan. In the north, the area extends to southern France and southwestern Switzerland ( canton of Valais ), and further to the east to the Crimea and the Caucasus . The southern border runs in North Africa from Morocco in the west to Tunisia in the east. In the east, deposits in Israel, Jordan, the Arabian Peninsula and Somalia are known. There is also an occurrence on the island of Ascension in the South Atlantic, where the species was introduced by humans. Material has also been published from South Africa that can be counted on the pupa granite snail. Here, too, anthropogenic displacement can be assumed.

The whorl snail lives in dry, open locations on rocky or grassy, ​​calcareous subsoil. In Switzerland it rises to 1000 m above sea level.


The taxon Granopupa was proposed by Oskar Boettger in 1889 . It was placed in 1998 by Anatolij Schileyko as a subgenus of the genus Chondrina . Later authors have not followed this and the fauna Europaea also sees Granopupa as an independent genus.

The taxon Pupa granum was established in 1801 by Jacques Philippe Raymond Draparnaud . The Fauna Europaea records the following synonyms for Granopupa granum :

  • Pupa aemula E. von Martens, 1872
  • Pupa granum var. Bulimiformis Mousson, 1872
  • Pupa columnella Locard, 1894
  • Pupa granum var. Diluta Westerlund, 1878
  • Pupa graniformis Chatenier, 1888
  • Pupa (Modicella) gratiosa Westerlund, 1898
  • Pupa (Torquilla) krueperi Westerlund, 1894
  • Pupa lopedusae Monterosato, 1892
  • Pupa granum var. Meridionalis Adami, 1886
  • Pupa granum f. minor Bourguignat, 1864
  • Pupa subulata var. Poulseni Westerlund, 1887
  • Pupa (Torquilla) profuga Westerlund, 1898
  • Pupa (Torquilla) retracta Westerlund, 1892
  • Pupa sardoa Cantraine, 1840
  • Pupa saulcyi Bourguignat, 1852
  • Pupa (torquilla) retracta var. Semi dens Westerlund, 1892
  • Pupa subulata Bivona, 1840
  • Pupa granum f. tetrodon Westerlund, 1887
  • Pupa granum var. Turbiana Caziot, 1910


The pupa grain snail is classified as endangered in Switzerland (Welter Schultes).

supporting documents


  • Klaus Bogon: Land snails biology, ecology, biotope protection. 404 p., Natur Verlag, Augsburg 1990 ISBN 3-89440-002-1 (p. 118/120)
  • Rosina Fechter and Gerhard Falkner: molluscs. 287 p., Mosaik-Verlag, Munich 1990 (Steinbach's Nature Guide 10) ISBN 3-570-03414-3 (p. 116)
  • Edmund Gittenberger: Contributions to the knowledge of the pupillacea: III. Chondrininae. Zoologische Verhandelingen, 127 (1): 3-267, 1973 ISSN  0024-1652 PDF .
  • Michael P. Kerney, RAD Cameron & Jürgen H. Jungbluth: The land snails of Northern and Central Europe. 384 pp., Paul Parey, Hamburg & Berlin 1983 ISBN 3-490-17918-8 (p. 64)
  • Francisco W. Welter-Schultes: European non-marine molluscs, a guide for species identification = identification book for European land and freshwater mollusks. A1-A3 S., 679 S., Q1-Q78 S., Göttingen, Planet Poster Ed., 2012 ISBN 3-933922-75-5 , ISBN 978-3-933922-75-5

Individual evidence

  1. Joseph Heller: Land Snails of the Land of Israel. 360 pp., Pensof, Sofia & Moscow, 2009 ISBN 978-954-642-510-2
  2. ^ W. Waitzbauer, B. Petutschnig: The land snails of Jordan (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Stylommatophora). Denisia, 14: 229-236, 2004 PDF
  3. Oskar Boettger: The development of the pupa species of the Middle Rhine region in time and space. Yearbooks of the Nassau Association for Natural History, 42: 225-327, Wiesbaden 1889 Online at www.biodiversitylibrary.org (p. 249).
  4. Fauna Europaea: Granopupa O. Boettger 1889
  5. ^ Jacques Philippe Raymond Draparnaud: Tableau des mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles de la France. 1-116 pp., Montpellier & Paris, Renaud; Bossange, Masson & Besson 1801 Online at www.biodiversitylibrary.org (p. 59).
  6. Fauna Europaea: Granopupa granum (Draparnaud, 1801)


Web links

Commons : Puppet Wheat Snail ( Granopupa )  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files