Regulation (nature and technology)
The control is a process in systems in which the interaction takes place (in nature , control systems and Company ), and wherein a principle variable (dynamic) size usually automatically is kept constant or approximately constant. The term used in science for this process is cybernetics , an interdisciplinary branch that became established in the 1940s. Norbert Wiener was the founder of cybernetics .
An essential property of the regulation process, which is widely encountered , is that the value of the variable to be kept constant is determined as the actual value (measurement) and, if it deviates from the desired setpoint, is changed in such a way that it approaches it again. Because the drift from the setpoint is counteracted, the feedback is a negative feedback (reversal of sign).
Examples of regulations
- Nature: regulation of the body temperature of humans or animals
- Technology: Regulation of the speed of a machine
- Society: Maintaining the value of a currency
Controlling a variable does not mean that the effects of disturbances are fundamentally eliminated completely and in the shortest possible time. Particularly in the case of a major disruption, there is often a noticeable change in the variable to be regulated, which only gradually fades and sometimes also with a fluctuating value (example: increased body temperature during illness). Often there is also a minor interference (so-called permanent control deviation).
DIN definition (technology)
The standard DIN IEC 60050-351: 2009-06 defines the concept of regulation as follows:
“The regulation , the regulation , is a process in which a variable variable, the controlled variable, is continuously recorded, compared with another variable, the reference variable, and influenced in the sense of an adjustment to the reference variable.
- Note: The control is characterized by the closed action sequence, in which the controlled variable continuously influences itself in the action path of the control loop. "
Related terms (technology)
In the English language the word control is used for both control and regulation. To differentiate, closed-loop control is used for regulation and open-loop control for control .
- Social regulatory processes usually do not take place automatically, but are conscious processes. Due to the high complexity of the interactions, a single measure ( control ) is usually not sufficient , but the effect must be continuously determined and action must be taken again.